Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations. 1 , when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it 2 .
As for me, weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active to focusing 3 on the scale. That was bad to my overall fitness goals. I had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of 4 the number on the scale, I altered my training program. That conflicted with how I needed to train to 5 my goals.
I also found that weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate 6 of the hard work and progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice any significant changes in your weight 7 altering your training program. The most 8 changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost
For these 9 , I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule 10 . Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to_ 11 _ my weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and 12 any significant weight changes. That tells me whether I need to 13 my training program.
I use my bimonthly weigh-in 14 to get information about my nutrition as well. If my training intensity remains the same, but I'm constantly 15 and dropping weight, this is a 16 that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.
The 17 to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. I'm experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry the burden of a 18 morning weigh-in. I've also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals, 19 I'm training according to those goals, not the numbers on a scale.
Rather than 20 over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.
A. regardless of
B. aside from
C. along with
D. due to
A. approve of
B. hold onto
C. account for
D. depend on
答案1-5 ADAAC 6-10 AACBD 11-15 ACBDB 16-20 CBDAD
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends -- and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable-- it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary -- feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.
And quilt , by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti , a psychology professor at the University of Toronto ,suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some Kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa : High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones share more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
“That’s good news,” Malti says, “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”
21. Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help _______.
A. regulate a child’s basic emotions
B. improve a child’s intellectual ability
C. foster a child’s moral development
D. intensify a child’s positive feelings
22. According to Paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be _______.
23. Vaish holds that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that _______.
A. emotions are context-independent
B. emotions are socially constructive
C. emotional stability can benefit health
D. an emotion can play opposing roles
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______.
A. may help correct emotional deficiencies
B. can result from either sympathy or guilt
C. can bring about emotional satisfaction
D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts
25. The word “transgressions” (Line 4, Para. 5) is closest in meaning to _______.
21 C foster a child's moral development 第一段“This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount to be a good thing. 有利于道德良好发展。
22. B burdensome第二段“In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable-it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones” 通过比喻，得出负罪感让人负担重重。
23 D. an emotion can play opposing roles这题难度高，要求总结Vaish列举的例子，“And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and' fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.”得出她对负罪感的重新审视源于认识到负罪感会让人意识到不足，从而做出弥补失去的善良，起到相反的作用。
24 B can result from either sympathy or guilt第四段，Malti 的研究结果In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. 合作和分享可能源于负罪或同情
25 D wrongdoing借助前面的negative feelings about 推出词义坏事
Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the harder challenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.
Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap - but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable "carbon sinks" long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.
The state's proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest's capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscape is rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fire, fewer trees are consumed.
The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010,drought and insects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.
California plans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030 - financed from the proceeds of the state' s emissions- permit auctions. That's only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.
The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research on transportation biofuels is already under way.
State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they've focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California's plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.
26. By saying “one of the harder challenges ,”the author implies that_________.
A. global climate change may get out of control
B. people may misunderstand global warming
C. extreme weather conditions may arise
D. forests may become a potential threat
27. To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks," we may need to__________.
A. preserve the diversity of species in them
B. accelerate the growth of young trees
C. strike a balance among different plants
D. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
28. California's Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to_______.
A. cultivate more drought-resistant trees
B. reduce the density of some of its forests
C. find more effective ways to kill insects
D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires
29.What is essential to California's plan according to Paragraph 5?
A. To handle the areas in serious danger first.
B. To carry it out before the year of 2020.
C. To perfect the emissions-permit auctions.
D. To obtain enough financial support.
30. The author's attitude to California's plan can best be described as________.
26. D. forests may become a potential threat
27. D lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity为了将来森林能吸收更多二氧化碳，目前只能暂时让森林减少吸收CO2。
28.B. reduce the density of some of its forests第三段 Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. 把森林里的幼树和灌木清理了，此段*后一句提到，万一有森林大火，殃及的树木也少些。
29.A.To handle the areas in serious danger first.第五段结尾提到so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought. 原文 vital 对应题目的essential , 那些容易发生火灾或遭遇干旱的地方是加州政府计划中的重点。
American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years now. Given a multi-year decline in illegal immigration, and a similarly sustained pickup in the U.S. job market, the complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.
Efforts to create a more straightforward agricultural-workers visa that would enable foreign workers to stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry have so far failed in Congress. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities and consumers will be the losers.
Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the U.S., the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled, rather than migrating, and more likely to be married than single. They are also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now, more than half are. And crop picking is hard on older bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.
Mechanization is not the answer either — not yet at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans and wheat have been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive crops, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots currently do only a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they are automated.
As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the agricultural workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.
The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 annually. Even so, employers frequently complain that they aren’t allotted all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led H-2A workers to arrive on the job an average of 22 days late. And the shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.
In a 2012 survey ，71 percent of tree-fruit growers and nearly 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western growers have responded by moving operations to Mexico. From 1998-2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imported fruit had increased to 25.8 percent.
In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
31. What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?
A. Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.
B. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.
C. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.
D. Decline of job opportunities in U.S. agriculture.
32. One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is_______.
A. the rising number of illegal immigrants
B. the high mobility of crop workers
C. the lack of experienced laborers
D. the aging of immigrant farm workers
33. What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?
A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.
B. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.
D. To strengthen financial support for farmers.
34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its ___.
A. slow granting procedures
B. limit on duration of stay
C. tightened requirements
D. control of annual admissions
35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?
A. U.S. Agriculture in Decline?
B. Import Food or Labor?
C. America Saved by Mexico?
D. Manpower vs. Automation?
31. C Flaws in US immigration rules for farmers. 第一结尾提到美国移民法对外来农场务工人员要有大变动才能应对农场劳动力不足问题。第二段提到美国众议院设置障碍，让外来民工不易获得签证。
32。D the aging of immigrant farm workers第三段提到美国农民工，其中半数是非法移民，出现老年化的问题，
33。B To get native U.S. workers back to farming the often-debate cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has been along: Native US workers will not be returning” 争论焦点是让美国人自己去务农，但打死老美，也不会去耕地。
35 BImport food or labor?中心题，利用*后一段作者结论，出路两条，要不进口食物要不进口劳动力
Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you: It's easy to beat plastic. They're part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day — encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.
The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.
My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. On their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have "done our bit" without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions — a kind of "moral licensing" that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.
While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping bags and straws, we're ignoring the balance of power that implies that as "consumers" we must shop sustainably, rather than as "citizens" hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.
It's important to acknowledge that the environment isn't everyone's priority – or even most people's. We shouldn't expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things, Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will "eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022." There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.
DeSombre isn't saying people should stop caring about the environment. It's just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.
None of this is about writing off the individual. It's just about putting things into perspective. We don't have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.
36. Some celebrities star in a new video to
A. demand new laws on the use of plastics
B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis
D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
37. The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may
A. mislead us into doing worthless things
B. prevent us from making further efforts
C. weaken our sense of accomplishment
D. suppress our desire for success
38. By pointing out our identity as “citizens,”,the author indicates that
A: our focus should be shifted to community welfare
B: our relationship with local industries is improving
C: We have been actively exercising our civil rights
D: We should press our government to lead the combat
39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be
A: a win-win arrangement
B: a self-driven mechanism
C: a cost-effective approach
D: a top down process
40. The author concludes that individual efforts
A: can be too aggressive
B: can be too inconsistent
C: are far from sufficient
D: are far from rational
36. B urge consumers to cut the use of plastics名流鼓励个人少用塑料。 第一段出现两个线索，But the overarching message is directed at individuals.
37.B Prevent us form making further efforts这样道德许使得人们安于现状，不积极采取更多行动，要求对此负有责任政府的提出更多要求
38. D. we should press our governments to lead the combat we're ignoring the balance of power that implies that as"consumers " we must shop sustainable, rather than as ”citizens ”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change. 我们忽略权利的平衡，这意味着我们作为消费者，必须购物注意可持续发展的问题，而不是作为公民，我们理应让政府和企业担起责任，推进系统性的变化。
39. D A top-down process第五段“Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural. *佳途径是结构上的，至上而下的路径
40. C are far from sufficient出题在*后两段，个人力量太慢，需要更激进的政策推动限制塑料的使用
You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45). Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
In choosing a new home, Camille McClain’s kids have a single demand: a backyard.
That seemingly reasonable request turned the Chicago family’s home hunt upside down, as there weren’t many three-bedroom apartments on the North Side-where the family was looking-that came with yard space. Still , McClain and her husband chose to honor their 4-and 6-year-old’s request.
“We worked with a few apartment brokers, and it was strange that many of them didn’t even know if there was outdoor space, so they’d bring us to an apartment ,we’d see that it didn’t have a yard, and we’d move on,” said McClain, who runs Merry Music Makers in Lakeview, a business focused on music education for children.
McClain’s little ones aren’t the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters’ views weigh heavily on parents’ real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.
Renters paid attention to their kids’ preferences even more:83 percent said their children’s opinions will be a factor when they buy a home.
The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said Ryan Hooper, a clinical psychologist in Chicago.
“Children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,” he said.
Younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home --- without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Leitman Bailey, real estate attorney based in New York and author of the upcoming children’s book “Home,” about the search for the perfect home from the viewpoint of a child.
Asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home will make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process, Bailey said.
Many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita, Calif. And placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.
“Speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.” Hampson said.
The other issue is that many children - especially older ones - may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Norris of The Norris Group in Riverside , Calif.
“They love Chip and Joanna Gaines just as much as the rest of us,” he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It’s not shelter , it’s a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious money consequences.”
Kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, Norris said.
Parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires may change over time, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst with FitSmallBusiness.com.
“Their opinions can change tomorrow,” Gurner said. “Harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child’s opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best - and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it their own.”
This advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.
Today, wannabe homebuyers have to be more open when it comes to must-haves and what you can compromise on, Hampson said.
And speaking of compromise: The McClain kids, hungry for outdoor space, fell in love with a home in the North Park neighborhood that had a large yard. But it wasn’t ideal by their parents’ standards.
The family ended up renting a house in North Center that had a smaller yard, but it was still big enough for playtime.
“I had to do a bit of a sales job with the kids since they loved the yard in North Park,” McClain said.”But there’s a hammock they lounge on, a spot to jump rope, a place to play in the sprinkler, and an area to write with sidewalk chalk.”
A. remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.
41. Ryan Hooper
B. says that it is wise to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions.
42. Adam Bailey
C. advises that home purchases should not be based only on children's opinions.
43. Tracey Hampson
D. thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in homebuying decisions.
44. Aaron Norris
E. notes that aspects like children's friends and social activities should be considered upon homebuying.
45. Julie Gurner
F. believes that homebuying decisions should be based on children's needs rather than their opinions.
G. assumes that many children's views on real estate are influenced by the media.
41. D. remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.
42. G. thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in homebuying decisions.
43. F. advises that home purchases should not be based only on children’s opinions.
44. C. Assumes that many children’s views on real estate are influenced by the media.
45. B. Believes that homebuying should be based on children's need’s rather than their opinions.
Section III Translation
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
It is easy to underestimate English writer James Herriot. He had such a pleasant, readable style that are might think that anyone could imitate it. How many times have I heard people say, “I could write a book, I just haven’t the time” Easily said. Not so easily done. James Herriot, contrary to popular opinion did not find it easy in his early days of, as he put it, “having a go at the writing game”. While he obviously had an abundance of natural talent, the final polished work that he have to the world was the result of years of practicing, re-writing and reading. Like the majority of authors, he had to suffer many disappointments and rejections along the way, but these made him all the more determined to succeed. Everything he achieved in life was earned the hard way and his success in the literacy field was no exception.
Directions: Suppose Prof Smith asks you to plan a debate on the theme of city traffic, write an email to him.
1) Suggest a topic and with your reasons;
2) And your arrangement.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
Don' t use your own name, use "Zhang Wei" instead. Don’t write your address. (10 points)
Dear Prof. Smith, (注意抬头,正式称谓)
It is a great honor to be assigned to plan the debate. Upon careful consideration, I would suggest the topic “Private Cars or Mass Transit” for this debate.
I make this proposal mainly because with the improvement of people’s living standards, more citizens are driving their own cars, but this trend is causing increasingly serious traffic jams. Currently, public transportation systems like subway should be the best way for people to move about. Reaction to this issue can be quite divided.
I plan to hold the preliminary contest on Jan. 5 from 6 pm to 9 pm in the school auditorium, from which ten best candidates will be chosen for the final contest on Jan. 12 evening. I am sure many students will be interested in participating in this event.
I am looking forward to your further advice on the matter.
Part B 48.Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing,you should Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should interpret the chart, and give your comments.
You should write about I50 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(15 points）
What Students Did After Graduation
What would students do after graduation from this college? According to this graph, in 2013, 68.1% of them started to find jobs, and another 26.3% went on for further education. 5 years later, the percentage of graduates getting employed dropped to 60.7% while those striving for higher degrees rose to 34%. In both years, only a tiny proportion of them managed to establish businesses of their own (1.3% and 2.6% respectively).
This change is not difficult to understand if we take the following factors into consideration. First and foremost, thanks to the fast economic development, more families can financially afford to have their children stay longer on campus for higher degrees. Secondly, in an era of knowledge economy, companies are attaching greater importance to the education backgrounds of new employees, and this forces young people to fight for higher degrees. Meanwhile, we must be acutely aware that the Chinese economy has been becoming increasingly competitive and thus fewer young college graduates dare to take the step to follow their pioneering spirits.
From the discussion above, I have good reason to predict that the percentage of college graduates continuing their study will be on a steady rise in the years to come. It is surely a good sign of social, economic and educational progress in our country. But government also needs to create a favorable social environment so that more young educated people would venture to create their own enterprises.