当前位置:

2019年管理类联考真题及详解
2019-01-17
经验分享.jpg


同研名师数学“秒杀之父”孙华明解析

 

问题求解:(第 1~15 ,每小题 3 分,共 45 下列每题给出的 ABCDE五个选项中,只有符合试题要求的,题卡上将所选项的黑。)

1、某车间计划10天完成一项任务,工作3天后因故停工2天,若要按原计划完成任务,则工作效率需要提高(   

A.20%                  B.30%                  C.40%                  D.50%                  E.60%



3、某影城统计了一季度的观众人数,如图,则一季度的男女观众之数之比为(   

A.3:4                    B.5:6                    C.12:13                 D.13:12          E.4:3

秒杀**:由于 女生比较喜欢看电影,而又因素AE干扰,CD干扰,所以只能迭AC了,秒杀复杂的选 C

 


 

6、将一批树苗种在正方形花圃边上,四角都种,如果每隔3米种一棵,那么剩下10棵树苗,如果生隔2米种一棵,那么恰好种满正方形的3条边,则这批树苗有(    )棵

A.54                     B .60            C.7                D.82                     E.94

 

7、在分别标记1,2,3,4,5,6六张卡片中,甲抽取1张,乙中余下的卡片中再抽取2张,乙的卡片数字之和大于甲的概率为(   

 

810名同学的语言,和数学成绩如表:

语文成绩

90

92

94

88

86

95

87

89

91

93

数学成绩

94

88

96

93

90

85

84

80

82

98

解:直接计算即可

 

 

9、如图,正方体位于半径为3的球内,且一面位于球的大圆上,则正方体表面积*大为(   

A.12      B.18                  C.24                     D.30                            E.36

解:教程篇原题

 

 

11、某单位要铺设草坪,若甲乙两公司合作需6天完成,工时费共2.4万元,若甲公司单独做4天后由乙公司接着做9天完成,工时费共计2.35万元,若由甲公司单独完成该项目,则工时费共计(E)万元。

A.2.25                  B.2.35                          C.2.4                    D.2.45                  E.2.5

 

 

A. 72     B. 80     C. 90     D. 85     E. 100

解析:选C

 

14.某中学的 5 个学科各推荐 2 名教师作为支教候选人,若从中选出来自不同学科的 2 人参加支教工作,则不同的选派方式有( )种.

A. 20    B. 24      C. 30     D. 40     E. 45

解析:选D

 


二、条件充分性判断:第16-25小题,每小题3分,共30分。要求判断每题给出的条件(1)和条件(2)能否充分支持题干所陈述的结论。A、B、C、D、E五个选项为判断结果,请选择一项符合试题要求的判断,在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。

(A)      条件(1)充分,但条件(2)不充分

(B)      条件(2)充分,但条件(1)不充分

(C)      条件(1)和(2)都不充分,但联合起来充分

(D)      条件(1)充分,条件(2)也充分

(E)      条件(1)不充分,条件(2)也不充分,联合起来仍不充分

 

16、甲、乙、丙三人各自拥有不超过 10 本图书,甲丙购入 2 本图书后,他们拥有的图书数量构成等比数列,则能确定甲拥有图书的数量  

(1) 已知乙拥有的图书数量.     (2) 已知丙拥有的图书数量

解析:选C

 

 

19、能确定小明年龄(   

1)小明年龄完全平方数

220年后小明年龄是完全平方数

C



           

23、某校理学院五个系每年录取人数如下表

系列

数学系

物理系

化学系

生物系

地学系

录取人数

60

120

90

60

30

今年与去年相比,物理系平均分没变,则理学院录取平均分升高了(   

1)数学系录取平均分升高了3分,重物系录取平均分降低了2

2)化学系录取平均分升高了3分,地学系录取平均分降低于4分。

解:此题明显联合,条件(1)可知总分提高了60分条件(2)可知部分降低了30分,联合后部分还是提高了,平均分为升高, C

 



同研逻辑名师孙勇(机工版教材主编)解析

 

三、逻辑推理:第26-55小题,每小题2分,共60分。下列每题给出(A)、(B)、(C)、(D)、(E)五个选项中,只有一项是符合试题要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。

26:新常态下,消费需求发生深刻变化,消费拉开档次,个性化、多样化消费渐成主流。在相当一部分消费者那里,对产品质量的追求压倒了对价格的考虑。供给侧结构性改革,说到底是满足需求。低质量的产能必然会过剩,而顺应市场需求不断更新换代的产能不会过剩。

根据以上陈述,可以得出以下哪项?

A.只有质优价高的产品才能满足需求

B.顺应市场需求不断更新换代的产能不是低质量的产能

C.低质量的产能不能满足个性化需求

D.只有不断更新换代的产品才能满足个性化、多样化消费的需求

E.新常态下,必须进行供给侧结构性改革

选B。试题已知条件没有表示假言命题的关键词,只能对选项逐项验证。当验证B选项时,已知条件“低质量的产能必然会过剩”和“顺应市场需求不断更新换代的产能不会过剩”可以推知“顺应市场需求不断更新换代的产能不是低质量的产能”,即B选项。

 

27:据碳14检测,卡皮瓦拉山岩画的创作时间*早可追溯到3万年前。在文字尚未出现的时代,岩画是人类沟通交流、传递信息、记录日常生活的方式。于是今天的我们可以在这些岩画中看到:一位母亲将孩子举起嬉戏,一家人在仰望并试图碰触头上的星空……动物是岩画的另一个主角,比如巨型犰狳、马鹿、螃蟹等。在许多画面中,人们手持长矛,追逐着前方的猎物。由此可以推断,此时的人类已经居于食物链的顶端。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持上述推断?

A.岩画中出现的动物一般是当时人类捕猎的对象

B.3万年前,人类需要避免自己被虎豹等大型食肉动物猎杀

C.能够使用工具使得人类可以猎杀其他动物,而不是相反

D.有了岩画,人类可以将生活经验保留下来供后代学习,这极大地提高了人类的生存能力

E.对星空的敬畏是人类脱离动物、产生宗教的动因之一

选A。试题要加强的观点是“人类已经居于食物链的顶端”。论证的论据是岩画中出现了很多动物,A选项说明这些动物是当时人类捕猎的对象,说明人类是动物的捕猎者,加强了“人类居于食物链的顶端”。选项C具有较强干扰性,但是注意到该选项只是说明使用工具使人类能够猎杀动物,这仅仅说明工具对人类的意义,并且该选项与“岩画”完全无关。

 

28:李诗、王悦、杜舒、刘默是唐诗宋词的爱好者,在唐朝诗人李白、杜甫、王维、刘禹锡中4人各喜爱其中一位,且每人喜爱的唐诗作者不与自己同姓。关于他们4人,已知:

(1)某人如果爱好王维的诗,那么他也爱好辛弃疾的词;

(2)某人如果爱好刘禹锡的诗,那么他也爱好岳飞的词;

(3)某人如果爱好杜甫的诗,那么他也爱好苏轼的词。

如果李诗不爱好苏轼和辛弃疾的词,则可以得出以下哪项?

A.杜舒爱好辛弃疾的词

B.王悦爱好苏轼的词

C.刘默爱好苏轼的词

D.李诗爱好岳飞的词

E.杜舒爱好岳飞的词

选D。三句前提都是假言命题,作为大前提(1)和(3)与“李诗不爱好苏轼和辛弃疾的词”结合,可以推知“李诗不爱好王维和杜甫的诗”,他不爱好同姓的李白的诗,可知“李诗爱好刘禹锡的诗”,结合(2)可知,他爱好岳飞的词。

 

29:人们一直在争论猫与狗谁更聪明。*近,有些科学家不仅研究了动物脑容量的大小,还研究了大脑皮层神经细胞的数量,发现猫平常似乎总摆出一副智力占优的神态,但猫的大脑皮层神经细胞的数量只有普通金毛犬的一半。由此,他们得出结论:狗比猫更聪明。

以下哪项*可能是上述科学家得出结论的假设?

A.狗善于与人类合作,可以充当导盲犬、陪护犬、搜救犬、警犬等,就对人类的贡献而言,狗能做的似乎比猫多

B.狗可能继承了狼结群捕猎的特点,为了互相配合,它们需要做出一些复杂行为

C.动物大脑皮层神经细胞的数量与动物的聪明程度呈正相关

D.猫的神经细胞数量比狗少,是因为猫不像狗那样“爱交际”

E.棕熊的脑容量是金毛犬的3倍,但其脑神经细胞的数量却少于金毛犬,与猫很接近,而棕熊的脑容量却是猫的10倍

选C。科学家的观点是“狗比猫更聪明”,论据是狗的大脑皮层神经细胞数量比猫多。从前提到结论的过渡需要假设“大脑皮层神经细胞数量和动物聪明程度之间的关系”,即C选项。

 

30—31题基于以下共同题干:

某单位拟派遣3名德才兼备的干部到西部山区进行**扶贫。报名者踊跃,经过考察,*终确定了陈甲、傅乙、赵丙、邓丁、刘戊、张己6名候选人。根据工作需要,派遣还需要满足以下条件:

(1)若派遣陈甲,则派遣邓丁但不派遣张己;

(2)若傅乙、赵丙至少派遣1人,则不派遣刘戊。

30:以下哪项的派遣人选和上述条件不矛盾?

A.赵丙、邓丁、刘戊

B.陈甲、傅乙、赵丙

C.傅乙、邓丁、刘戊

D.邓丁、刘戊、张己

E.陈甲、赵丙、刘戊

选D。条件(1)排除选项B、E;条件(1)排除选项A和E,所以答案选D。

 

31:如果陈甲、刘戊至少派遣1人,则可以得出以下哪项?

A. 派遣刘戊

B. 派遣赵丙

C. 派遣陈甲

D. 派遣傅乙

E. 派遣邓丁

选E。注意条件6选3。陈甲和刘戊至少派一人;假设派了陈甲,由(1)可知派邓丁;假设不派陈甲,那么派刘戊,由(2)可知博乙和赵丙都不派,这样剩下两人邓丁和张己都派,这说明也派邓丁。所以邓丁必派,答案选E。

 

32:近年来,手机、电脑的使用导致工作与生活界限日益模糊,人们的平均睡眠时间一直在减少,熬夜已成为现代人生活的常态。科学研究表明,熬夜有损身体健康,睡眠不足不仅仅是多打几个哈欠那么简单。有科学家据此建议,人们应该遵守作息规律。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持上述科学家所作的建议?

A.长期睡眠不足会导致高血压、糖尿病、肥胖症、抑郁症等多种疾病,严重时还会造成意外伤害或死亡

B.缺乏睡眠会降低体内脂肪调解瘦素激素的水平,同时增加饥饿激素,容易导致暴饮暴食、体重增加

C.熬夜会让人的反应变慢、认知退步、思维能力下降,还会引发情绪失控,影响与他人的交流

D.所有的生命形式都需要休息与睡眠,在人类进化过程中,睡眠这个让人短暂失去自我意识、变得极其脆弱的过程并未被大自然淘汰

E.睡眠是身体的自然美容师,与那些睡眠充足的人相比,睡眠不足的人看上去面容憔悴,缺乏魅力

选D。要加强的科学家建议是“人们应该遵守作息规律”,这一建议的涵义就是“不要熬夜,也睡眠”。D选项说明“睡眠是所有生命形式所必须的”对科学家的建议加强。A选项说明“长期睡眠不足的害处”,该选项*多说明“不要长期睡眠不足”而非“要睡眠”;B和C选项并没有说明“缺乏睡眠会对健康的影响”,所以都不能对科学家的建议给予加强。

 

33:有一论证(相关语句用序号表示)如下:

①今天,我们仍然要提倡勤俭节约。② 节约可以增加社会保障资源,③ 我国尚有不少地区的人民生活贫困,亟需要更多社会保障资源,但也有一些人浪费严重;④ 节约可以减少资源消耗,⑤ 因为被浪费的任何粮食或者物品都是消耗一定得资源得来的。

如果用“甲→乙”表示甲支持(或证明)乙,则以下哪项对上述论证基本结构的表示*为准确?

选D。阅读5句话后,可以确定“①今天,我们仍然要提倡勤俭节约”是观点。这样,对节约好处的说明将支持该观点,②和④说明节约的两种好处,所以答案选D。

 

34:研究人员使用脑电波图技术研究了母亲给婴儿唱童谣时两人的大脑活动,发现当母亲与婴儿对视时,双方的脑电波趋于同步,此时婴儿也会发出更多的声音尝试与母亲沟通。他们据此以为,母亲与婴儿对视有助于婴儿的学习和交流。

以下哪项为真,*能支持上述研究人员的观点?

A.在两个成年人交流时,如果他们的脑电波同步,交流就会更流畅

B.当父母与孩子互动时,双方的情绪与心率可能也会同步

C.当部分学生对某学科感兴趣时,他们的脑电波会渐趋同步,学习效果也随之提升

D.当母亲和婴儿对视时,她们都在发出信号,表明自己可以且愿意与对方交流

E.脑电波趋于同步可优化双方对话状态,使交流更加默契,增进彼此了解

选E。要加强的观点是“母亲与婴儿对视有助于婴儿的学习和交流”,该观点的理由是“母亲和婴儿对视时双方的脑电波趋于同步”。E选项说明当脑电波趋于同步时交流会更加默契,这就加强了“母亲和婴儿对视有助于婴儿的交流”。D选项仅仅说明“对视时发出信号表示可以并且愿意交流”,但这不说明交流的效果是否更好,所以D选项不能加强。

 

35:本保险柜所有密码都是4个阿拉伯数字和4个英文字母的组合。已知:

(1)若4个英文字母不连续排列,则密码组合中的数字之和大于15;

(2)若4个英文字母连续排列,则密码组合中的数字之和等于15;

(3)密码组合中的数字之和或者等于18,或者小于15。

根据上述信息,以下哪项是可能的密码组合?

A.1adbe356

B.37ab26dc

C.2acgf716

D.58bcde32

E.18ac42de

选B。条件(1)排除选项A、E;条件(2)排除D;条件(3)排除E,所以答案选B

 

36:有一6×6的方阵,它所含的每个小方格中可填入一个汉字,已有部分汉字填入,现要求该方阵中的每行每列均含有礼、乐、射、御、书、数6个汉字,不能重复也不能遗漏。

根据上述要求,以下哪项是方阵底行5个空格中从左至右依次应填入的汉字?






















A.数、礼、乐、射、御

B.乐、数、御、射、礼

C.数、礼、乐、御、射

D.乐、礼、射、数、御

E.数、御、乐、射、礼

选A。类似于“数独游戏”,但是由于逻辑考试已经有了选项,所以不必从头到尾计算填写。第一列各个选项是“数”“乐”均合乎要求;第二列中第三行有“御”排除E选项;第三列都合乎要求;第四列第一行有“御”排除C;第五列第三行有礼,排除B,第四行有数,排除D,所以正确答案选A。

 

37:某市音乐节设立了流行、民谣、摇滚、民族、电音、说唱、爵士这7大类的奖项评选。在入围提名中,已知:

(1)至少有6类入围;

(2)流行、民谣、摇滚中至多有2类入围;

(3)如果摇滚和民族类都入围,则电音和说唱中至少有一类没有入围。

根据上述信息,可以得出以下哪项?

A.流行类没有入围

B.民谣类没有入围

C.摇滚类没有入围

D.爵士类没有入围

E.电音类没有入围

选C。注意条件是7选6,即只能排除1,条件(2)说明排除的一个在流行、民谣和摇滚中,所以电音和说唱都入围了,这样由条件(3)说明摇滚或者民族未入围,结合(2)可知,摇滚未入围,所以答案选C。

 

38:某大学有位女教师默默资助一位偏远山区的贫困家庭长达15年。记者多方打听,发现做好事者是该大学传媒学院甲、乙、丙、丁、戊5位教师中的某一位。在接受采访时,5位老师都很谦虚,他们是这么对记者说的:

甲:这件事是乙做的。

乙:我没有做,是丙做了这件事。

丙:我并没有做这件事。

丁:我也没有做这件事,是甲做的。

戊:如果甲没有做,则丁也不会做。

记者后来得知,上述5位老师中只有一人说的话符合真实情况。

根据以上信息,可以得出做这件好事的人是?

A.甲     B.乙    C.丙     D.丁     E.戊

选D。五人的话仅有一直,若甲做好事,丙、丁、戊的话都真,不合题意,排除;若乙做好事,甲、丙、戊的话都真,不合题意,排除;若丙做好事,乙、戊的话都真,不合题意,排除;若丁做好事,仅丙的话为真,合乎题意;若戊做好事,丙、戊的话都真,不合题意。所以答案选D。

 

39:作为一名环保爱好者,赵博士提倡低碳生活,积极宣传节能减排。但我不赞同她的做法,因为作为一名大学老师,他这样做,占用了大量的科研时间,到现在连副教授都没评上,他的观点怎么能令人信服呢?

以下哪项论证中的错误和上述*为相似?

A.张某提出要同工同酬,主张在质量相同的情况下,不分年龄,级别一律按件计酬。她这样说不就是因为她年轻、级别低吗?其实她是在为自己谋利益

B.公司的绩效奖励制度是为了充分调动广大员工的积极性,它对所有员工都是公平的。如果有人对此有不同意见,则说明他反对公平

C.*近听说你对单位的管理制度提了不少意见,这真令人那以置信!单位领导对你差吗?你这样做,分明是和单位领导过不去

D.单位任命李某担任信息科科长,听说你对此有意见。大家都没有提意见,只有你一个人有意见,看来你的意见是有问题的

E.有一种观点认为,只有直接看到的事物才能确信其存在。但是没有人可以看到质子、电子,而这些都被科学证明是客观存在的。所以,该观点是错误的

选D。要辨析出题干论证错误的结构:某人的观点是不正确的,因为一个理由(该理由不足以反驳)。这一论证的关键在于无效反驳。A选项没有反驳张某的观点,仅是说明其观点的动机,不相似;B选项是正确的论证,不相似;C选项并未反驳意见本身,仅说明提意见的动机,不相似;D选项反驳对方的意见,但是理由是仅他一人有意见,这不足以反驳对方意见,相似;E是正确的反驳,不相似。所以类似论证的错误选项为D。

 

 

40:下面6张卡片,一面印的是汉字(动物或者花卉),一面印的是数字(奇数或者偶数)。

对于上述6张卡片,如果要验证“每张卡片至少有一面印的是偶数或者花卉”。至少需要翻看几张卡片?

A.2     B.3     C.4     D.5     E.6

选B。要验证“每张卡片至少有一面印的是偶数或者花卉”,由于卡片“6”“菊”“8”不必翻看了,所以仅需翻看3张卡片。

 

41:某地人才市场招聘保洁、物业、网管、销售等4种岗位的从业者,有甲、乙、丙、丁4位年轻人前来应聘。事后得知,每人只能选择一种岗位应聘,且每种岗位都有其中一人应聘。另外,还知道:

(1)如果丁应聘网管,那么甲应聘物业;

(2)如果乙不应聘保洁,那么甲应聘保洁且丙应聘销售;

(3)如果乙应聘保洁,那么丙应聘销售,丁也应聘保洁。

根据以上陈述,可以得出以下哪项?

A.甲应聘网管岗位

B.丙应聘保洁岗位

C.甲应聘物业岗位

D.乙应聘网管岗位

E.丁应聘销售岗位

选D.由于每一个岗位都只有一位应聘,所以由(3)可能“乙不应聘保洁”,再由(2)可知甲应聘保洁并且丙应聘销售,再由(1)可知丁不应聘网管,这样乙应聘网管,答案所以选D。

 

42:旅游是一种独特的文化体验。游客可以跟团游,也可以自由行。自由行游客虽避免了跟团游的集体束缚,但也放弃了人工导游的全程讲解,而近年来他们了解旅游景点的文化需求却有增无减。为适应这一市场需求,基于手机平台的多款智能导游APP被开发出来。他们可定位用户的位置,自动提供景点讲解、游览问答等功能。有专家就此指出,未来智能导游必然会取代人工导游,传统的导游职业行将消亡。

以下哪项如果为真,*能质疑上述专家的论断?

A.至少有95%的国外景点所配备的导游讲解器没有中文语音,中国出境游客因为语言和文化上的差异,对智能导游APP的需求比较强烈

B.旅行中才会使用的智能导游APP,如何保持用户黏性、未来又如何取得商业价值等都是待解问题

C.好的人工导游可以根据游客需求进行不同类型的讲解,不仅关注景点,还可表达观点,个性化很强,这是智能导游APP难以企及的

D.目前发展较好的智能导游APP用户量在***左右,这与当前中国旅游人数总量相比还只是一个很小的比例,市场还没有培养出用户的普遍消费习惯

E.国内景区配备的人工导游需要收费,大部分导游讲解的内容都是事先背好的标准化内容。但是,即便人工导游没有特色,其退出市场也需要一定的时间

选C。要质疑的观点是“智能导游必然取代人工导游,传统的导游职业行将消亡”。C选项说明人工导游具有不同于智能导游的特点,所以不可被取代。其他选项基本没有干扰性,如E选项只是说人工导游退出市场需要一定时间,但并没有否定“人工导游将要退出市场”。

 

43:甲:上周去医院,给我看病的医生竟然还在抽烟。乙:所有抽烟的医生都不关心自己的健康,而不关心自己健康的人也不会关心他人的健康。甲:是的,不关心他人健康的医生没有医德。我今后再也不会让没有医德的医生给我看病了。

根据上述信息,以下除了哪项,其余各项均可得出?

A.甲认为他不会再找抽烟的医生看病

B.乙认为上周给甲看病的医生不会关心乙的健康

C.甲认为上周给他看病的医生不会关心医生自己的健康

D.甲认为上周给他看病的医生不关心甲的健康

E.乙认为上周给甲看病的医生没有医德

选E。注意问题是“除了哪项,其余各项均可得出”,由于“医生没有医德”是甲的观点,并且乙也没有对此表达同意,所以E选项是对话所推不出的结论。

 

44:得道者多助,失道者寡助。寡助之至,亲戚畔之;多助之至,天下顺之。以天下之所顺,攻亲戚之所畔,故君子有所不战,战必胜矣。

以下哪项是上述论证所隐含的前提?

A.得道者多,则天下太平

B.君子是得道者

C.得道者必胜失道者

D.失道者必定得不到帮助

E.失道者亲戚畔之

选B。论证的观点是“君子战必胜”,前提则是“得道者多助,失道者寡助”这样论证隐含的前提有“君子是得道者”“多助者必胜寡助者”,所以B是正确答案。注意C不能选,因为该选项没有涉及“君子”和“多助者与寡助者的关系”。

 

45:如今,孩子写作业不仅仅是他们自己的事,大多数中小学生的家长都要面临陪孩子写作业的任务,包括给孩子听写、检查作业、签字等。据一项针对3000余名家长进行的调查显示,84%的家长每天都会陪孩子写作业,而67%的受访家长会因陪孩子写作业而烦恼。有专家对此指出,家长陪孩子写作业。相当于充当学校老师的助理,让家庭成为课堂的延伸,会对孩子的成长产生不利影响。

,以下哪项如果为真,*能支持上述专家的论断?

A.家长是*好的老师,家长辅导孩子获得各种知识本来就是家庭教育的应有之义,对于中低年级的孩子,学习过程中的父母陪伴尤为重要

B.家长通常有自己的本职工作,有的晚上要加班,有的即使晚上回家也需要研究工作、操持家务,一般难有精力认真完成学校老师布置的“家长作业”

C.家长陪孩子写作业,会使得孩子在学习中缺乏独立性和主动性,整天处于老师和家长的双重压力下,既难激发学习兴趣,更难养成独立人格

D.大多数家长在孩子教育上并不是行家,他们或者早已遗忘了自己曾学习过的知识,或者根本不知道如何将自己拥有的知识传授给孩子

E.家长辅导孩子,不应围绕老师布置的作业,而应着重激发孩子的学习兴趣,培养孩子良好的学习习惯,让孩子在成长中感到新奇、快乐

选C。要加强的观点是“家长陪孩子写作业,会对孩子的成长产生不利影响。”C选项说明家长陪孩子做作业对孩子学习和成长的害处,对论证给与加强。其他选项都与“对孩子有害”无关,没有干扰选项。

 

46:我国天山是垂直地带性的典范,已知天山的植被形态分布具有如下特点:

(1)从低到高有荒漠、森林带、冰雪带等;

(2)只有经过山地草原,荒漠才能演变成森林带;

(3)如果不经过森林带,山地草原就不会过渡到山地草甸;

(4)山地草甸的海拔不比山地草甸草原的低,也不比高寒草甸高。

根据以上信息,关于天山植被形态,按照由低到高排列,以下哪项是不可能的?

A.荒漠、山地草原、山地草甸草原、森林带、山地草甸、高寒草甸、冰雪带

B.荒漠、山地草原、山地草甸草原、高寒草甸、森林带、山地草甸、冰雪带

C.荒漠、山地草甸草原、山地草原、森林带、山地草甸、高寒草甸、冰雪带

D.荒漠、山地草原、山地草甸草原、森林带、山地草甸、冰雪带、高寒草甸

E.荒漠、山地草原、森林带、山地草甸草原、山地草甸、高寒草甸、冰雪带

选B。注意问题是“以下哪项是不可能的”。由于选项是列举式选项,所以将已知条件向下验证。条件(1)都满足;条件(2)说明由低到高是荒漠、山地草原、森林,都满足;条件(3)说明由低到高是山地草原、森林、山地草甸,都满足;条件(4)说明由低到高是山地草甸草原、山地草甸、高寒草甸,这样B选项不符合,所以答案选B。

 

47:某大学读书会开展“一月一书”活动。读书会成员甲乙丙丁戊5人在《论语》《史记》《唐诗三百首》《奥德赛》《资本论》中各选一种阅读,互不重复。已知:

(1)甲爱读历史,会在《史记》和《奥德赛》中选一本;

(2)乙和丁只爱中国古代经典,但现在都没有读诗的心情;

(3)如果乙选《论语》,则戊选《史记》。

事实上,每个人读选了自己喜爱的书。根据以上信息,可以得出哪项?

A.甲选《史记》

B.乙选《奥德赛》

C.丙选《唐诗三百首》

D.丁选《论语》

E.戊选《资本论》

选D。条件(2)说明乙和丁选的是《论语》和《史记》,结合(3)可以推知:乙不能选《论语》,所以乙选的是《史记》,这样丁选的是《论语》,所以答案选D。

 

48:如果一个人只为自己劳动,他也许能成为**学者、大哲人、**诗人、然而他永远不能成为**无瑕的伟大人物。如果我们选择了*能为人类福利而劳动的职位,那么,重担就不能把我们压倒,因为这是为大家而献身:那时我们所感到的就不是可怜的、有限的、自私的乐趣,我们的幸福将属于千百万人,我们的事业将默默地、但是永恒发挥作用地存在下去,而面对我们的骨灰,高尚的人们将洒下热泪。

根据以上陈述,可以得出以下哪项?

A.如果一个人只为自己劳动,不是为大家而献身,那么重担就能将他压倒

B.如果我们为大家而献身,我们的幸福将属于千百万人,面对我们的骨灰,高尚的人们将洒下热泪

C.如果我们没有选择*能为人类福利而劳动的职业,我们所感到的就是可怜的、有限的、自私的乐趣

D.如果选择了*能为人类福利而劳动的职业,我们就不仅能够成为**学者、大哲人、**诗人,而且还能多成为**无瑕的伟大人物

E.如果我们只为自己劳动,我们的事业就不会默默地、但是永恒发挥作用地存在下去

选B。已知条件主要是假言命题,将此看做大前提,由于没有小前提,所以只能对选项逐项验证。A选项的“那么重担就能将他压倒”推不出,排除;B选项可以从“这是为大家而献身那时……我们的幸福将属于千百万人,……而面对我们的骨灰,高尚的人们将洒下热泪”推出。C选项中“如果我们没有选择*能为人类福利而劳动的职业”便可以排除;D选项假言命题的后半句是题干所没有信息,排除;E选项中的“我们的事业就不会默默地、但是永恒发挥作用地存在下去”无法推出,排除。

 

49-50题基于以下共同题干:

某食堂采购4类(各种蔬菜名称的后一个字相同,即为一类)共12种蔬菜:芹菜、菠菜、韭菜;青椒、红椒、黄椒;黄瓜、冬瓜、丝瓜;扁豆、毛豆、豇豆,并根据若干条件将其有分成3组,准备在早、中、晚三餐中分别使用。已知条件如下:

(1)同一类别的蔬菜不在一组;

(2)芹菜不能在黄椒那一组,冬瓜不能在扁豆那一组;

(3)毛豆必须与红椒或韭菜同一组;

(4)黄椒必须与豇豆同一组。

49:根据以上信息,可以得出以下哪项?

A.芹菜与豇豆不在同一组

B.芹菜与毛豆不在同一组

C.菠菜与扁豆不在同一组

D.冬瓜与青椒不在同一组

E.丝瓜与韭菜不在同一组

选A。将同组元素做相同标记,不同组的元素做不同标记,可以确定:黄椒、豇豆一组;冬瓜、毛豆一组。这样由(2)芹菜不能在黄椒那一组,可以推知A选项“芹菜与豇豆不在同一组”是正确的。

 

50:如果韭菜、青椒与黄瓜在同一组,则可得出以下哪项?

A.芹菜、红椒与扁豆在同一组

B.菠菜、黄椒与豇豆在同一组

C.韭菜、黄瓜与毛豆在同一组

D.菠菜、冬瓜与豇豆在同一组

E.芹菜、红椒与丝瓜在同一组

选B。将同组元素做相同标记,不同组的元素做不同标记,可以确定:黄椒、豇豆一组;冬瓜、毛豆一组;又青椒、黄瓜、韭菜同一组,这一组还有扁豆;于是根据条件(3)和(2)可知:红椒、冬瓜、毛豆、芹菜一组;剩下的菠菜和丝瓜在黄椒、豇豆一组,所以答案选B。

 

51:《淮南子·齐俗训》中有曰:“今屠牛而烹其肉,或以为酸,或以为甘,煎熬燎炙,齐味万方,其本一牛之体。”其中的‘熬”便是熬牛肉制汤的意思。这是考证牛肉汤做法的*早文献资料。某民俗专家由此推测,牛肉汤的起源不会晚于春秋战国时期。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持上述推测?

A.《淮南子·齐俗训》完成于西汉时期

B.早在春秋战国时期,我国已经开始使用耕牛

C.《淮南子》的作者中有来自齐国故地的人

D.春秋战国时期我国已经有熬汤的鼎器

E.《淮南子·齐俗训》记述的是春秋战国时期齐国的风俗习惯

选E。要加强的观点是“牛肉汤的起源不会晚于春秋战国时期”,证据是《淮南子·齐俗训》中有关于牛肉汤做法的文献资料。E选项说明《淮南子·齐俗训》记载的是春秋战国时期的历史,在时间上对论证给予加强。其他选项都基本无关,例如C选项说明书的作者有来自齐国故地的人,这与书记载的内容无关;D选项不涉及“牛肉汤”。

 

52:某研究机构以约2万名65岁以上的老人为对象,调查了笑的频率与健康状态的关系。结果显示,在不苟言笑的老人中,认为自身现在的健康状态“不怎么好”和“不好”的比例分别是几乎每天都笑的老人的1.5倍和1.8倍。爱笑的老人对自我健康状态的评价往往较高。他们由此认为,爱笑的老人更健康。

以下哪项如果为真,*能质疑上述调查者的观点?

A.乐观的老年人比悲观的老年人更长寿

B.病痛的折磨使得部分老人对自我健康状态的评价不高

C.身体健康的老年人中,女**笑的比例比男性高10个百分点

D.良好的家庭氛围使得老年人生活更乐观,身体更健康

E.老年人的自我健康评价往往和他们实际的健康状况之间存在一定的差距

选D。要质疑的观点是“爱笑的老人更健康”,D选项说明“良好的家庭氛围”使老人更乐观,这既是老人爱笑的原因,也是他们身体更健康的原因,属于共因削弱。其他选项都不能削弱,例如E选项并不涉及观点,而且“自我评价与实际健康状况之间存在差距”并不意味着老人就不健康。

 

53:阔叶树的降尘优势明显,吸附PM2. 5的****,一棵阔叶树对一年的平均滞尘量达3.16公斤。针叶树叶面积小,吸附PM2.5的功效较弱。全年平均下来,阔叶林的吸尘效果要比针叶林强不少。阔叶树也比灌木和草的吸尘效果好得多。以北京常见的阔叶树国槐为例,成片的国槐林吸尘效果比同等面积的普通草地约高30%。有些人据此认为,为了降尘北京应大力推广阔叶树,并尽量减少针叶林面积。

以下哪项如果为真,*能削弱上述有关人员的观点?

A.阔叶树与针叶树比例失调,不仅极易暴发病虫害、火灾等,还会影响林木的生长和健康

B.针叶树冬天虽然不落叶,但基本处于“休眠”状态,生物活性差

C.植树造林既要治理PM2.5,  也要治理其他污染物,需要合理布局

D.阔叶树冬天落叶,在寒冷的冬季,其养护成本远高于针叶树

E.建造通风走廊,能把城市和交区的森林连接起来,让清新的空气吹入,降低城区的PM2.5

选A。要削弱的观点是“为了降尘,北京应当大力推广阔叶树,并尽量减少针叶林面积”。A选项说明,阔叶树和针叶树具有一定的比例,不能比例失调,这样对“大力推广阔叶树尽量减少针叶林面积”给予削弱。其他选项不能削弱,例如D选项仅仅说明种植阔叶树的成本高,但与“推广阔叶树尽量减少针叶林的面积以降尘”则没有涉及。

 

54-55题基于以下共同题干:

某园艺公司打算在如下形状的花圃中栽种玫瑰、兰花和菊花三个品种的花卉。该花圃的形状如下所示:

拟栽种的玫瑰有紫、红、白3种颜色,兰花有红、白、黄3种颜色,菊花有白、黄、蓝3种颜色。栽种需满足如下要求:

(1)每个六边形格子中仅栽种一个品种、一种颜色的花;

(2)每个品种只栽种两种颜色的花;

(3)相邻格子中的花,其品种与颜色均不相同。

54:若格子5中是红色的花,则以下哪项是不可能的?

A.格子1中是白色的兰花

B.格子4中是白色的兰花

C.格子6中是蓝色的菊花

D.格子2中是紫色的玫瑰

E.格子1中是白色的菊花

选E。 格子5是红花,或者是红色的兰花或者红色的玫瑰,这意味着格子2和3中必有菊花,所以格子1中不可能是菊花,故答案选E。

 

55:若格子5中是红色的玫瑰,且格子3中是黄色的花,则可以得出以下哪项?

A.格子4中是白色的菊花

B.格子2中是白色的菊花

C.格子6中是蓝色的菊花

D.格子4中是白色的兰花

E.格子1中是紫色的玫瑰

选D。格子5是红色的玫瑰,格子3是黄花,可以推知格子2、3、4、6中只能有一种黄花,并且格子4和6是两种花的白花。这样格子3只能是兰花的黄花,格子2是菊花的蓝花,所以,格子4是兰花的白花,格子6是菊花的白花,答案选D。

 

同研名师董洁详解

 

四、写作:第56-57题,共65分,其中论证有效性分析30分,论说文35分。

56、论证有效性分析:分析下面的论证在概念、论证方法、论据及结论等方面的有效性。600字左右。(30分) (提示:论证有效性分析的一般要点是:概念特别是核心概念的界定和使用上是否准确并前后-致,有无各种明显的逻辑错误,该论证的论据是否支持结论,论据成立的条件是否充分等。要注意分析的内容深度、逻辑结构和语言表达。)

 

    有的人认为选择越多越快乐,其理由是:人的选择越多就越自由其自主性就越高,就越感到幸福和满足,所以就越快乐,其实选择越多,可能会越痛苦。

 常言道:“知足常乐”,一个人知足了才会感到快乐,世界上的事物是无穷的。所以选择也是无穷的,所谓:“选择越多越快乐”,意味着只有无穷的选择,才能使人感到*快乐,而追求无穷的选择就是不知足,不知足者就不会感到快乐,那就是只会感到痛苦”。

     再说,在做出每一项选择时,首先需要我们对各个选项进行考察分析,然后再进行判断决策。选择越多,我们在考察分析选项时势必付出更多的精力,也就势必带来更多的烦恼和痛苦。事实也正是如此,我们在做考卷中的选择题时,选项越多,选择起来就越麻烦,也就越感到痛苦。

     还有选择越多,选择时产生失误的概率就越高,由于选择失误而产生的后悔就越多,因而产生的痛苦也就越多,有人认为飞机晚点而后悔没选择坐高铁,就是因为可选交通工具多样造成的,如果没有高铁可选,就不会有这种后悔和痛苦。

     退一步说,即使其选择没有**的对错之分,也肯定有优劣之分,人们做出某些选择后可能会觉得自己的选择并非*优而产生懊悔。从这种意义上说,选择越多,后悔的概率就越大,也就越痛苦,很多股民懊悔自已没有选择好股票。而未赚到更多的钱,从而痛苦不已。无疑是因为可选股票太多而造成的。

 ( 提示:论证有效性分析的一般要点是:概念特别是核心概念的界定和 使用上是否准确并前后一致,有无各种明显的逻辑错误,该论证的论据是否支持结论,论据成立的条件是否充分等。要注意分析的内容深度、逻辑结构和语言表达。

 

论证有效性分析

一、难度系数分析

    今年的论证有效性分析整体难度不大。保持了*近几年论证有效性分析的一贯风格。

    在内容上,考察的是关于“选择”问题,专业性不是很强,考生只需根据日常生活经验就可以整体掌握论证的核心。

    在形式上,还是采取驳论式的命题方法。文章整体都在反驳“选择越多越快乐”这样的观点。我们需要做到“否定之否定”。

    在考点设置上,基本延续历年的思路,40%的错误只要依靠日常思维就可以解决,另外 60%的错误需要结合逻辑推理。

    整体说来,考生只要根据认真思考,仔细分析,根据日常学习的知识,都能够获得比较理想的分数。

二、题干的论证思路

本文所要论证的观点是:其实选择越多,可能会越痛苦。为了证明这一观点, 本文从以下四个角度进行了分析和论证,题干的四个分论点是:

1、只有无穷的选择,才能使人感到*快乐,而追求无穷的选择就是不知足, 不知足者就不会感到快乐,那就是只会感到痛苦。

2、选择越多,我们在考查分析选项时势必付出更多的精力,也就势必带来更多的烦恼和痛苦。并以考卷中的选择题为例进行证明

3、选择越多,选择时产生失误的概率就越高,由于选择失误而产生的后悔就越多,因而产生的痛苦也就越多。并以出行方式作为证明。

4、选择越多,后悔的概率就越大。并以股市为例作为证明。

三、主要逻辑缺陷

    1、作者曲解了“知足常乐”的概念,知足常乐,出自老子《道德经》,含义是安于已经得到的利益、地位,并非是文中认为“只有无穷的选择,才能使人感到*快乐”。

    2、 “追求无穷的选择”和“不知足”,是完全两码事,前者强调探索的勇气,后者强调的是欲求不满,两者侧重角度不同,不能完全等同。在此基础上推出“不知足者就不会感到快乐,那就是只会感到痛苦。”的推论也明显不能成立。

    3、材料中认为:选择越多,付出精力越多,势必带来更多的烦恼和痛苦。这一说法过于**。虽然,面对更多的选择,我们要付出更多的精力。但是,后果却不一定是烦恼和痛苦,还有经验、成就、欢乐和满足感。

    4、为了证明 3 中的观点,作者以考卷中的选择题为例,这样的论证明显是以偏概全的,事实上“选择题”是无法代表生活中的“选择”的。

5、作者选择越多,选择时产生失误的概率就越高,由于选择失误而产生的后悔就越多,因而产生的痛苦也就越多。这种说法明显是片面的,作者为何不提选择越多,成功的概率也会高呢?

6、作者为了证明 5 中的观点,提出“有人认为飞机晚点而后悔没选择坐高铁,就是因为可选交通工具多样造成的,如果没有高铁可选,就不会有这种后悔和痛苦。”这明显是不准确的。

    7、作者认为:即使其选择没有**的对错之分,也肯定有优劣之分,人们做出某些选择后可能会觉得自己的选择并非*优而产生懊悔。从这种意义上说, 选择越多,后悔的概率就越大,也就越痛苦。这里明显有强加因果的嫌疑。

8、作者为了证明 7,还提出:很多股民懊悔自己没有选择好股票。而未赚到更多的钱,从而痛苦不已。无疑是因为可选股票太多而造成的。和上文所说一样, 仍然是以偏概全的嫌疑。

9、作者全文都在讨论选择失败会怎么样,这明显属于片面看问题。为何不谈选择成功所带来的喜悦和满足感呢?

10、其他错误,言之成理,均可得分。

 

例文

一份有待商榷的论证

    上述材料通过概念,推论,引用等方法从四个角度对于“选择”这一话题进行了分析,得出了“选择越多,可能会越痛苦”的结论。其论证存在多处缺陷,分析如下:

    首先,作者偷换了“知足常乐”的真正含义,将其等同于“只有无穷的选择,才能使人感到*快乐”,并且在此基础上认为:追求无穷的选择就是不知足,不知足就会感到痛苦。这样的说法在逻辑上难以必然成立,有偷换概念的嫌疑。知足常乐,可能是满足既得利益的意思,而并不一定如文中所说,欲求不满,得陇望蜀。

 

    其次,论述者认为:选择越多,付出的精力越多,带来的烦恼和痛苦越多,并以考卷中的选择题为例,证明自己的观点。该推理过程明显与事实背道而驰,有片面的嫌疑。这里只强调了选择多带来的烦恼和痛苦,而忽视了我们应对选择积累经验,提升能力,丰富人生的诸多好处。

    再次,材料中还提出:选择越多,失误的概率越高,产生的后悔和痛苦也就越多,并以飞机—高铁的替代效应为例说明这一点。其观点明显属于因噎废食的片面性结论。并不一定因为会产生失误,我们就要原地踏步,静止不前。

    *后,题干在*后之处,选择有优劣之分,而人们往往不会做出正确的选择,所以,选择越多,后悔的概率就越大,也就越痛苦,并且以股民为例佐证自己的观点。此处的说法也是站不住脚的,看问题的角度极端片面化。只看到了选择失败的后悔,并没有提选择成功的喜悦。而且,文章所举出的股市的例子,和上文选择题、高铁—飞机的例子一样,都是个例,不能作为推断整体的论据。

    综上所述,这是一份不严密的论证,其得出的结论是不可信的。“选择越多,越痛苦”这个观点,还应该进行更加理性、客观的分析。

 

57.论说文:根据下述材料,写一篇700字左右的论说文,题目自拟。

知识的真理性只有经过实践才能得到证明。论辩是纠正错误的重要途径之一,冲突的观点可以暴露错误从而发现真理。

 

论说文分析

一、难度系数分析

   今年的论说文,题目比较抽象,这一点符合*近几年的命题趋势。整体来说难度中等偏上,对于考生思维能力、分析能力、论证能力的要求较高。

二、命题来源分析

   1978 年 5 月 11 日,《光明日报》发表本报特约评论员文章《实践是检验真理的**标准》,由此引发了一场关于真理标准问题的大讨论。文章指出:

    实践不仅是检验真理的标准,而且是**的标准。***说:“真理只有一个,而究竟谁发现了真理,不依靠主观的夸张,而依靠客观的实践。只有千百万人民的革命实践,才是检验真理的尺度。”“真理的标准只能是社会的实践。”这里说:“只能”、“才是”,就是说,标准只有一个,没有第二个。……对于这些“禁区” ,我们要敢于去触及,敢于去弄清是非。科学无禁区。凡有超越于实践并自奉为**的“ 禁区”的地方,就没有科学,就没有真正的马列主义、***思想,而只有蒙昧主义、唯心主义、文化专制主义。***同志在十一届三中全会中指出:

   目前进行的关于实践是检验真理的**标准问题的讨论,实际上也是要不要解放思想的争论。大家认为进行这个争论很有必要,意义很大。从争论的情况来看,越看越重要。一个党,一个国家,一个民族,如果一切从本本出发,思想僵化,迷信盛行,那它就不能前进,它的生机就停止了,就要亡党亡国。

   习近平同志在庆祝改革开放四十周年讲话中指出:

在中国这样一个有着 5000 多年文明史、13 亿多人口的大国推进改革发展, 没有可以奉为金科玉律的教科书,也没有可以对中国人民颐指气使的教师爷。鲁迅先生说过:“什么是路?就是从没路的地方践踏出来的,从只有荆棘的地方开辟出来的。”

三、参考立意分析

文章的逻辑如下:知识的真理性只有经过实践才能证明,而论辩是实践的一种,在论辩中,正反双方相互辩论,充分地表达自己的观点,这样才能暴露错误, 发现真理。在这样的逻辑范围内,可供参考的利益角度有:

1、真理越辩越明,道理越讲越清;

2、实践是检验真理的**标准;

3、追求真理的方式、方法;

4、勇于实践,在实践中检验真理,发展真理;

5、论辩的意义、价值、作用;

6、真理的意义、价值、作用;

在此话题的逻辑范围内,其他立意,只要言之成理,均可以得分。另外,命题背景是改革开放四十周年,如果大家在写作过程中,能结合这一背景论述,会更加贴切。

 

例文

真理愈辩愈明 道理越讲越清

1978 年 5 月 11 日,《光明日报》发表特约评论员文章《实践是检验真理的**标准》,由此引发了一场关于真理标准问题的大讨论。在这次讨论中,暴露了我们在前进过程中的缺点、不足、和错误。重新确立了马克思主义的理论、路线、方针、政策和指导思想,开启了改革开放的伟大实践。由此可以看出:真理愈辩愈明,道理越讲越清,我们要在实践中,检验真理,发展真理!

首先,要在实践中检验真理,知识的真理性只有经过实践才能得到证明。正所谓“真金不怕火炼”,真正的真理必须要来源于实践,经得起时间的检验。老百姓有句俗话“是骡子是马,拉出来溜溜”,说的就是这个意思。以改革开放的伟大实践为例。四十年斗转星移,九万里风鹏正举,我们开创的“中国神话”和

“东方奇迹”就是对这一政策的*好检验和证明。

其次,要在实践中发展真理,要对真理进行不断的检验,正如题干所说:论辩是纠正错误的重要途径之一,冲突的观点可以暴露错误从而发现真理。在前进的道路上,我们有什么不足,有什么缺陷?要不断吸收正反两个反面的经验,通过论辩加深我们对于未来的理解和认识。试想,如果没有那场关于真理标准问题的大讨论,带来了思想领域的拨乱反正,如今我们还停留在徘徊前进中,怎么可能实现中华民族的伟大复兴。

*后,要不断促进实践与真理相结合。新中国成立以来特别是改革开放以来, 在不到 70 年的时间内,我们党带领人民坚定不移解放和发展社会生产力,走完了西方几百年的发展历程,推动我国快速成为世界第二大经济体。这些辉煌成绩的背后,就是我们通过“真理标准问题”这场大论辩,检验了真理,发展了真理, 并推动了二者的结合。

马克思曾经指出:“理论在一个国家实现的程度,总是决定于理论满足这个国家的需要的程度。”这就指出了实践对于真理的重要意义。我们要想取得更加长远的进步,必须要不断在实践中检验真理、发展真理,并且促进二者的结合!

 

 

2019管理类联考英语(二)真题及解析

同研名师马红英语详解

 

Section I Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations. 1 , when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it 2 .

  As for me, weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active to focusing 3 on the scale. That was bad to my overall fitness goals. I had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of 4 the number on the scale, I altered my training program. That conflicted with how I needed to train to 5 my goals.

  I also found that weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate 6 of the hard work and progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice any significant changes in your weight 7 altering your training program. The most 8 changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost

  For these 9 , I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule 10 . Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to_ 11 _ my weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and 12 any significant weight changes. That tells me whether I need to 13 my training program.

  I use my bimonthly weigh-in 14 to get information about my nutrition as well. If my training intensity remains the same, but I'm constantly 15 and dropping weight, this is a 16 that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.

  The 17 to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. I'm experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry the burden of a 18 morning weigh-in. I've also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals, 19 I'm training according to those goals, not the numbers on a scale.

  Rather than 20 over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.

1.

A. Therefore

B. Otherwise   

C. However  

D. Besides

2.

A. cares  

B. warns 

C. reduces  

D. helps

3.

A. solely 

B. occasionally  

C. formally

D. initially

4.

A. lowering  

B. explaining 

C. accepting  

D. recording

5.

A. set  

B. review 

C. reach  

D. modify

6.

A .depiction 

B. distribution 

C. prediction  

D. definition

7.

A. regardless   of

B. aside   from

C. along   with

D. due   to

8.

A. rigid  

B. precise

C. immediate  

D. orderly

9.

A.   judgments

B. reasons

C.   methods

D. claims

10.

A. though  

B. again  

C. indeed  

D. instead

11.

A. track 

B. overlook

C. conceal  

D. report

12.

A. approve   of

B. hold   onto

C. account   for

D. depend   on

13.

A. share  

B. adjust  

C. confirm  

D. prepare

14.

A. features  

B. rules  

C. tests

D. results

15.

A. anxious 

B. hungry 

C. sick  

D. bored

16.

A. secret 

B.   belief 

C. sign

D. principle

17.

A. necessity

B. decision

C. wish

D. request

18.

A. surprising 

B. restricting

C. consuming  

D. disappointing

19.

A. because  

B. unless 

C. until  

D. if

20.

A. dominating

B. puzzling  

C.   Triumphing

D. obsessing

  

答案  1-5 ADAAC    6-10  AACBD    11-15 ACBDB   16-20  CBDAD    

 

Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

  Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends -- and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.

  In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable-- it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary -- feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.

  And quilt , by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.

  Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti , a psychology professor at the University of Toronto ,suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some Kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa : High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.

  In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones share more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.

  “That’s good news,” Malti says, “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”

21. Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help _______.

  A. regulate a child’s basic emotions

  B. improve a child’s intellectual ability

  C. foster a child’s moral development

  D. intensify a child’s positive feelings

22. According to Paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be _______.

  A. deceptive

  B. burdensome

  C. addictive

  D. inexcusable

23. Vaish holds that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that _______.

  A. emotions are context-independent

  B. emotions are socially constructive

  C. emotional stability can benefit health

  D. an emotion can play opposing roles

24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______.

  A. may help correct emotional deficiencies

  B. can result from either sympathy or guilt

  C. can bring about emotional satisfaction

  D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts

25. The word “transgressions” (Line 4, Para. 5) is closest in meaning to _______.

  A. teachings

  B. discussions

  C. restrictions

  D. wrongdoings

21 C foster a child's moral development 一段“This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount to be a good thing. 有利于道德良好发展。

22. B burdensome  第二段“In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable-it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones” 通过比喻,得出负罪感让人负担重重。

23 D. an emotion can play opposing roles这题难度高,要求总结Vaish列举的例子,“And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and' fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.”得出她对负罪感的重新审视源于认识到负罪感会让人意识到不足,从而做出弥补失去的善良,起到相反的作用。

24 B  can result from either sympathy or guilt  第四段,Malti 的研究结果In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. 合作和分享可能源于负罪或同情

25 D  wrongdoing  借助前面的negative feelings about 推出词义坏事

 

Text 2

  Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the harder challenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.

  Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap - but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable "carbon sinks" long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.

  The state's proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest's capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscape is rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fire, fewer trees are consumed.

  The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010,drought and insects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.

  California plans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030 - financed from the proceeds of the state' s emissions- permit auctions. That's only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.

  The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research on transportation biofuels is already under way.

  State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they've focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California's plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.

26. By saying “one of the harder challenges ,”the author implies that_________.

  A. global climate change may get out of control

  B. people may misunderstand global warming

  C. extreme weather conditions may arise

  D. forests may become a potential threat

27. To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks," we may need to__________.

  A. preserve the diversity of species in them

  B. accelerate the growth of young trees

  C. strike a balance among different plants

  D. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity

28. California's Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to_______.

  A. cultivate more drought-resistant trees

  B. reduce the density of some of its forests

  C. find more effective ways to kill insects

  D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires

29.What is essential to California's plan according to Paragraph 5?

  A. To handle the areas in serious danger first.

  B. To carry it out before the year of 2020.

  C. To perfect the emissions-permit auctions.

  D. To obtain enough financial support.

30. The author's attitude to California's plan can best be described as________.

  A. ambiguous

  B. tolerant

  C. supportive

  D. cautious

26. D. forests may become a potential threat

第一段提到森林可能会成为排放二氧化碳的地方,而不是吸收CO2

27. D lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity  为了将来森林能吸收更多二氧化碳,目前只能暂时让森林减少吸收CO2

28.B. reduce the density of some of its forests  第三段 Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and  clear brush in parts of the forest.  把森林里的幼树和灌木清理了,此段*后一句提到,万一有森林大火,殃及的树木也少些。

29.A.To handle the areas in serious danger first. 第五段结尾提到so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought. 原文 vital 对应题目的essential , 那些容易发生火灾或遭遇干旱的地方是加州政府计划中的重点。

30.C. supportive *后一段*后一句,加州是 “model” 楷模,得出肯定, 支持态度。

 

 

Text 3

  American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years now. Given a multi-year decline in illegal immigration, and a similarly sustained pickup in the U.S. job market, the complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.

  Efforts to create a more straightforward agricultural-workers visa that would enable foreign workers to stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry have so far failed in Congress. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities and consumers will be the losers.

  Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the U.S., the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled, rather than migrating, and more likely to be married than single. They are also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now, more than half are. And crop picking is hard on older bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.

  Mechanization is not the answer either — not yet at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans and wheat have been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive crops, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots currently do only a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they are automated.

  As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the agricultural workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.

  The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 annually. Even so, employers frequently complain that they aren’t allotted all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led H-2A workers to arrive on the job an average of 22 days late. And the shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.

  In a 2012 survey 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and nearly 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western growers have responded by moving operations to Mexico. From 1998-2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imported fruit had increased to 25.8 percent.

  In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.

31. What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?

  A. Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.

  B. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.

  C. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.

  D. Decline of job opportunities in U.S. agriculture.

32. One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is_______.

  A. the rising number of illegal immigrants

  B. the high mobility of crop workers

  C. the lack of experienced laborers

  D. the aging of immigrant farm workers

33. What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?

  A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.

  B. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.

  C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.

  D. To strengthen financial support for farmers.

34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its ___.

  A. slow granting procedures

  B. limit on duration of stay

  C. tightened requirements

  D. control of annual admissions

35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?

  A. U.S. Agriculture in Decline?

  B. Import Food or Labor?

  C. America Saved by Mexico?

  D. Manpower vs. Automation?

31. C  Flaws in US immigration rules for farmers. 第一结尾提到美国移民法对外来农场务工人员要有大变动才能应对农场劳动力不足问题。第二段提到美国众议院设置障碍,让外来民工不易获得签证。

32D the aging of immigrant farm workers 第三段提到美国农民工,其中半数是非法移民,出现老年化的问题,

33B To get native U.S. workers back to farming  the often-debate cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has been along: Native US workers will not be returning” 争论焦点是让美国人自己去务农,但打死老美,也不会去耕地。

34A  Slow granting procedures 倒数第二段提到拿H-2A 签证常晚到22

35 B Import food or labor? 中心题,利用*后一段作者结论,出路两条,要不进口食物要不进口劳动力

 

Text 4

  Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you: It's easy to beat plastic. They're part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day — encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.

  The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.

  My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. On their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have "done our bit" without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions — a kind of "moral licensing" that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.

  While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping bags and straws, we're ignoring the balance of power that implies that as "consumers" we must shop sustainably, rather than as "citizens" hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.

  It's important to acknowledge that the environment isn't everyone's priority – or even most people's. We shouldn't expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things, Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.

  This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will "eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022." There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.

  DeSombre isn't saying people should stop caring about the environment. It's just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.

  None of this is about writing off the individual. It's just about putting things into perspective. We don't have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.

36. Some celebrities star in a new video to

  A. demand new laws on the use of plastics

  B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics

  C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis

  D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis

37. The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may

  A. mislead us into doing worthless things

  B. prevent us from making further efforts

  C. weaken our sense of accomplishment

  D. suppress our desire for success

38. By pointing out our identity as “citizens,”,the author indicates that

  A: our focus should be shifted to community welfare

  B: our relationship with local industries is improving

  C: We have been actively exercising our civil rights

  D: We should press our government to lead the combat

39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be

  A: a win-win arrangement

  B: a self-driven mechanism

  C: a cost-effective approach

  D: a top down process

40. The author concludes that individual efforts

  A: can be too aggressive

  B: can be too inconsistent

  C: are far from sufficient

  D: are far from rational

36. B urge consumers to cut the use of plastics 名流鼓励个人少用塑料。 第一段出现两个线索,But the overarching message is directed at individuals.

37.B  Prevent us form making further efforts 这样道德许使得人们安于现状,不积极采取更多行动,要求对此负有责任政府的提出更多要求

38. D. we should press our governments to lead the combat    we're ignoring the balance of power that implies that as"consumers " we must shop sustainable, rather than as ”citizens ”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.  我们忽略权利的平衡,这意味着我们作为消费者,必须购物注意可持续发展的问题,而不是作为公民,我们理应让政府和企业担起责任,推进系统性的变化。

39. D A top-down process第五段“Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.  *佳途径是结构上的,至上而下的路径

40. C  are far from sufficient 出题在*后两段,个人力量太慢,需要更激进的政策推动限制塑料的使用

 

Part B

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45). Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

In choosing a new home, Camille McClain’s kids have a single demand: a backyard.

That seemingly reasonable request turned the Chicago family’s home hunt upside down, as there weren’t many three-bedroom apartments on the North Side-where the family was looking-that came with yard space. Still , McClain and her husband chose to honor their 4-and 6-year-old’s request.

“We worked with a few apartment brokers, and it was strange that many of them didn’t even know if there was outdoor space, so they’d bring us to an apartment ,we’d see that it didn’t have a yard, and we’d move on,” said McClain, who runs Merry Music Makers in Lakeview, a business focused on music education for children.

McClain’s little ones aren’t the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters’ views weigh heavily on parents’ real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.

Renters paid attention to their kids’ preferences even more:83 percent said their children’s opinions will be a factor when they buy a home.

  The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said Ryan Hooper, a clinical psychologist in Chicago.

  “Children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,” he said.

   Younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home --- without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Leitman Bailey, real estate attorney based in New York and author of the upcoming children’s book “Home,” about the search for the perfect home from the viewpoint of a child.

  Asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home will make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process, Bailey said.

Many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita, Calif. And placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.

  “Speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.” Hampson said.

  The other issue is that many children - especially older ones - may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Norris of The Norris Group in Riverside , Calif.

  “They love Chip and Joanna Gaines just as much as the rest of us,” he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It’s not shelter , it’s a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious money consequences.”

  Kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, Norris said.

  Parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires may change over time, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst with FitSmallBusiness.com.

  “Their opinions can change tomorrow,” Gurner said. “Harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child’s opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best - and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it their own.”

This advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.

Today, wannabe homebuyers have to be more open when it comes to must-haves and what you can compromise on, Hampson said.

And speaking of compromise: The McClain kids, hungry for outdoor space, fell in love with a home in the North Park neighborhood that had a large yard. But it wasn’t ideal by their parents’ standards.

The family ended up renting a house in North Center that had a smaller yard, but it was still big enough for playtime.

“I had to do a bit of a sales job with the kids since they loved the yard in North Park,” McClain said.”But there’s a hammock they lounge on, a spot to jump rope, a place to play in the sprinkler, and an area to write with sidewalk chalk.”

  


A. remarks that significant moves   may pose challenges to children.

41. Ryan Hooper

 

B. says that it is wise to   leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions.

42. Adam Bailey

 

C. advises that home purchases should not   be based only on children's opinions.

43. Tracey Hampson

 

D. thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in   homebuying decisions.

44. Aaron Norris

 

E. notes that aspects like children's   friends and social activities should be considered upon   homebuying. 

45. Julie Gurner

F. believes that homebuying   decisions should be based on children's needs rather than their   opinions.


G. assumes that many children's views on   real estate are influenced by the media.

  

41. D. remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.

42. G. thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in homebuying decisions.

43. F. advises that home purchases should not be based only on children’s opinions.

44. C. Assumes that many children’s views on real estate are influenced by the media.

45. B. Believes that homebuying should be based on children's need’s rather than their opinions.

 

Section III Translation

  46.Directions:

Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

It is easy to underestimate English writer James Herriot. He had such a pleasant, readable style that are might think that anyone could imitate it. How many times have I heard people say, “I could write a book, I just haven’t the time” Easily said. Not so easily done. James Herriot, contrary to popular opinion did not find it easy in his early days of, as he put it, “having a go at the writing game”. While he obviously had an abundance of natural talent, the final polished work that he have to the world was the result of years of practicing, re-writing and reading. Like the majority of authors, he had to suffer many disappointments and rejections along the way, but these made him all the more determined to succeed. Everything he achieved in life was earned the hard way and his success in the literacy field was no exception.

 

很容易低估英国作家詹姆斯·赫里奥尔的这种令人愉快、易读的风格,人们可能认为任何人都可以模仿它。多少次我听到人们说,我可以写一本书。我只是没有时间。不是那么容易做的。与流行观点相反的是,詹姆斯·赫略在他早期的创作中并不容易,他在尝试写作游戏中:虽然他显然极其有天赋,但*终他大找造出来的作平是多年练习、重写和阅读的结果。和大多数作家一样,他在成功路上遭遇许多失望和拒绝,但这些都使他更加坚定了成功的决心。他在生活中所取得的一切都是艰辛的,他在文学领域的成功也不例外。

 

Section IV  Writing

Part A7. Directions:

Directions: Suppose Prof Smith asks you to plan a debate on the theme of city traffic, write an email to him.

1) Suggest a topic and with your reasons;

2) And your arrangement.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Don' t use your own name, use "Zhang Wei" instead. Don’t write your address. (10 points)

 

47.小作文解析:

Dear Prof. Smith, (注意抬头,正式称谓)

 

It is a great honor to be assigned to plan the debate. Upon careful consideration, I  would suggest the topic “Private Cars or Mass Transit” for this debate.

I make this proposal mainly because with the improvement of people’s living standards, more citizens are driving their own cars, but this trend is causing increasingly serious traffic jams. Currently, public transportation systems like subway should be the best way for people to move about. Reaction to this issue can be quite divided.

I plan to hold the preliminary contest on Jan. 5 from 6 pm to 9 pm in the school auditorium, from which ten best candidates will be chosen for the final contest on Jan. 12 evening. I am sure many students will be interested in participating in this event.

I am looking forward to your further advice on the matter.

Warm regards,

Zhang Wei

 

Part B
48.Directions:
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing,you should
Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should interpret the chart, and give your comments.

You should write about I50 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(15 points


48.大作文解析:

What Students Did After Graduation

What would students do after graduation from this college? According to this graph, in 2013, 68.1% of them started to find jobs, and another 26.3% went on for further education. 5 years later, the percentage of graduates getting employed dropped to 60.7% while those striving for higher degrees rose to 34%. In both years, only a tiny proportion of them managed to establish businesses of their own (1.3% and 2.6% respectively).

This change is not difficult to understand if we take the following factors into consideration. First and foremost, thanks to the fast economic development, more families can financially afford to have their children stay longer on campus for higher degrees. Secondly, in an era of knowledge economy, companies are attaching greater importance to the education backgrounds of new employees, and this forces young people to fight for higher degrees. Meanwhile, we must be acutely aware that the Chinese economy has been becoming increasingly competitive and thus fewer young college graduates dare to take the step to follow their pioneering spirits.

From the discussion above, I have good reason to predict that the percentage of college graduates continuing their study will be on a steady rise in the years to come. It is surely a good sign of social, economic and educational progress in our country. But government also needs to create a favorable social environment so that more young educated people would venture to create their own enterprises.

 

 

 


您是第 38378 位访客!