Directions：Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A，B，C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
People have speculated for centuries about a future without work, and today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again 1 that technology is replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 : A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.
A different, less paranoid, and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one 4 by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives 5 , people will simply become lazy and depressed. 6 , today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for 7 Americans. Also, some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addiction 9 poorly-educated, middle-aged people is a shortage of well-paid jobs. Another study shows that people are often happier at work than in their free time. Perhaps this is why many 10 the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.
But it doesn’t 11 follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with malaise. Such visions are based on the 12 of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the 13 of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the 15 of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a squandering of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway who has written about a world without work. “Global surveys find that the vast majority of people are unhappy at work.”
These days, because leisure time is relatively 16 for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional 17 of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel 18 ,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself 19 a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for 20 matters.
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing
A，B，C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Every Saturday morning at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Park run Phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 Seconds up to an hour.
Park run is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Fames would be to lever a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2million in the run-up to 2012-but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections Continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.”The success of Park run offers answers.
Park run is not a race but a time trial. Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sport and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.
Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots” concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.
21.According to Paragraph 1,Parkrun has______
A created many jobs
B gained great popularity
C become an official festival
D strengthened community ties
【B】 gained great popularity
归纳题, 受到大众欢迎。 The part run phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad 由此得公园跑步深受欢迎。
22.The author believes that London’s Olympic ”legacy” has failed to______
A boost population growth
B promote sport participation C improve the city's D increase sport hours in schools
【B】 promote sport participation
细节题奥运没有提高公共参与。第二段Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Fames would be to lever a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened.此外，参加运动人数锐减，Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate。由此得出没有提高参加运动人数。
23.Park run is different from Olympics games in that it_______
A.aims at discovering talents
B.focus on mass competition
C.does on attract first-timers
D.does not emphasize elitism
【D】 does not emphasize elitism
不强调优秀。第三段Park run is not a race but a time trial. Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining 同时要考虑奥运特点，The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing，奥运也希望更多人参与，否定mass participation, 选择不强调优秀。
sport and to produce more elite athletes.
24 .With regard to mass sports, the author holds that governments should______
A increase funds for sports clubs
B supervise local sports associations
C invest in public sports facilities
D organize “grassroots” sports event
【C】 invest in public sports facilities
增加公共运动的投入。*后一段，If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. 政府理应提供运动场地和经费，鼓励学校提供运动条件。
25.The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is ______
批评的But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. 历届政府一直出售绿化地带，地方政府减少对运动投入和越发少关心运动。
With so much focus on Children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”
Radesky has studied the use of mobile phone and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who used devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interaction with their children. During a separate observation she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.
Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive-as they often are when absorbed in a device-it can be extremely disconcerting for the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s.
In it, a mother is asked to interact with her children in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback. The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. “Parents don’t have to be exquisitely present at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expression of an emotional need, 3”says Radesky.
On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children:“It’s based on a somewhat fantasized very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way.
This can make them feel happier, which lets them to be more available to their child the rest of the time.
26. According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to_____
A. absorb user attention
B. increase work efficiency
C. simplify routine matters
D. better interpersonal relations
【A】 absorb user attention
第一段“ tech is designed to really suck you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.” 技术设计理念就是把人吸引住，让人*大量的投入进去。
27. Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices_____
A. takes away babies’ appetite
B. distracts children’s attention
C. reduces mother-child communication
D. shows down babies’ verbal development
【C】reduces mother-child communication
细节题 “a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who used devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interaction with their children.“ 母亲和孩子的语言和非语言互动均减少。
28. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” to show that______
A. it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions
B. parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs
C. verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange
D. children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood
【B】parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs
第三段“Parents don’t have to be exquisitely present at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expression of an emotional need, 转折词后提到父母应对和关注孩子的语言和非语言的情感需求。
29. The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to______
A. protects kids from exposure to wild fantasies
B. teach their kids at least 30000 words a year
C. remain concerned about kids’ use of screens
D. ensure constant interaction with their children
【D】 ensure constant interaction with their children
30. According to Tronick, kids’ use of screens may_______
A. make their parents more creative
B. give their parents some free time
C. help them with their homework
D. help them become more attentive
【B】 give their parents some free time 细节题
*后一段“Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child.”孩子用屏幕学习，让父母有空做家务，洗澡或稍有片刻不管孩子。
Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often cause students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all,if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic.
But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There’s always a constant fear of failing behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line”, whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or a lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits- in fact, it probably enhances it.
Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. 2 Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being throwing into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.
If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choice. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. 4 This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor-understanding of the themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school,it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. 4 At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.
31.One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____
[A]they think it academically misleading.
[B]they have a lot of fun to expect in college.
[C]it feels strange to do differently from others.
[D]it seems worthless to take off-campus courses.
【C】it feels strange to do differently from others.
细节题。第一段if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic. 高中毕业停学一年，觉得自己做其他同龄人不一样的事情，有点怪怪的，故不敢为之。
32、Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps______
A. keep students from being unrealistic
B. lower risks in choosing careers.
C. ease freshmen’s financial burdens
D. relieve freshmen of pressures.
【D】relieve freshmen of pressures
推断题。从Studies from the United States and Australia
show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. 一年不读书让他们能准备好独立生活，担当责任，应对新环境等一年级新生常常苦苦挣扎应对的事，利用关键词freshman 推出D
33. The word “acclimation“ (line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to______
利用原词acclimation 来自名词climate, 得出适应。
34. A gap year may save money for students by helping them_______
A. avoid academic failures
B .establish long-term goals
C .switch to another college
D. decide on the right major
【D】decide on the right major
*后一部份主要提及大学生进校后换专业的问题，“nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once.” 但是“. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.”利用一年时间思考可避免压力（肯定32题的D项）又可省钱。
35. The most suitable title for this text would be_____.
Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
In 2015,the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half its S5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearlydouble the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency’s other work-such as forest conservation , watershed and cultural resources management ,and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.
Another nationwide concern is whether public funds other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts .As Moritz puts it , how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
“It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country, he says.”We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like,’ Wait a minute ,is this OK?’ Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard of the landscape?”
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, research hers say.
For one thing conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade ,the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
While climate is a key element, Maritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation. 3
“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to” an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”
At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado.
But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
“We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”
36. More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they______
A. Exhausted unprecedented management efforts
B. Consumed a record-high percentage of budget
C. Severely damaged the ecology of western states
D. Caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure
【B】 Consumed a record-high percentage of budget
细节题，In 2015,the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half its S5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. 2015年的救火费用是前20年的比例的两倍。
37. Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to_______
A raise more funds for fire-prone areas
B avoid the redirection of federal money
C find wildfire-free parts of the landscape
D Guarantee safer spending of public funds
【D】 Guarantee safer spending of public funds
推断题从“We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like,’ Wait a minute ,is this OK?’ Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard of the landscape?” 我们得把钱投在风险小的地区，推出更安全使用公共经费。
38. While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that______
A public debates have not settled yet
B fire-fighting conditions are improving
C Other factors should not be overlooked
D A shift in the view of fire has taken place
【C】 Other factors should not be overlooked
细节题。原文提到“While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.” 虽然气候是重要因素，但是等式其他因素也得考虑。
39.The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to ______
A. Discover the fundamental makeup of nature
B. Explore the mechanism of the human systems
C. Maximize the role of landscape in human life
D. Understand the interrelations of man and nature
【D】 Understand the interrelations of man and nature
细节题“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. 没有考虑到人和自然的互相关联和互相作用关系，才会有现在过于简单的解决问题的方案。
40. Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should_
A. do away with
B. Come to terms with
C. Pay a price for
D. Keep away from
【B】 come to terms with
接受推断题。出题于“But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible” 火是人类生活的必然一部份的态度是制定确保生活安全的相关法律，政策和实践的关键。
Directions: Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column
to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. “We don’t make anything anymore,” he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.
Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing
But there is also a different way to look at the data.
Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennia’s may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.
For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers—and upward pressure on wages. “They’re harder to find and they have job offers,” says Jay Dun well, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, “They may be coming [into the workforce], but they’ve been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing,” Mr. Dun well has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.
At Roman Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.
At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he’s trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It’s his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. “I love working with tools. I love creating.” he says.
But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennia’s “remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,” says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.
The 2008-09 recession was another blow. And advances in computing and robotics offer new ways for factory owners to increase productivity using fewer workers.
“The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr , a business professor at Montcalm Community College. “There’re enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t need to have much skill. It’s that gap in between, and that’s where the problem is. ”
When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades.
Electricians, plumbers, and pipe fitters are in a short supply across Michigan and elsewhere vocational schools and union-run apprenticeships aren’t keeping pace with demand and older trades people are leaving the workforce . Now shortages are appearing the mid-skill levels.
“The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr , a business professor at Montcalm Community College an hour from Grand Rapids .” There’s enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t need to have much skill. It’s that gap in between ,and that’s where the problem is.”
Ms. Park of Grand Rapids Community College points to another key to luring Millennia’s into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people while flexibility. “Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives ,” she says.
41. Jay Dun well
A. Points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore
B. believes that it is important to keep a close eyes on the age of his workers
43. Birgit klohs
C. says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools
44. Rob Spohr
D. points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill
45. Julie Parks
E. points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing
F. says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition
G. says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off of the young people’s parents
Section III Translation
Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing. This is when I notice the course “Fashion Media &Promotion”.
Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to
1) Accept the invitation , and
2) Introduce the key points of your presentation.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead
Do not write your address.(10 points)
Dear Professor Williams,
I am much obliged and honored to receive your invitation, asking me to give a lecture about the Chinese culture to a group of international students in your college. I would accept it with great pleasure. I would confine my lecture to three parts, a brief introduction to Chinese history, a glimpse of characteristics of Chinese mentality and a touch of Chinese culture respectively. I would like to make comparison between Chinese culture and western one, complete with the differences between Chinese mentality and western one which may lie behind the gap between the two.
To conclude my speech, I would also like to offer these international students with specific examples, with a five-minute video showing the profound but interesting Chinese culture and its impact.
I do hope that my presentation will capture the students’ attention and arouse their interest in Chinese culture. Any of your suggestions are highly appreciated and welcome.
Looking forward to your reply.
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should
1)interpret the chart, and
2)give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15points)
The Boom of Museum Visiting
As is obviously indicated in the graph, the past few years witnessed a steady increase in the numbers of both museums and museum visitors. Take it for an example, the number of museum visitors increased from 0.6378 billion in 2013 to 0.6378 billion in 2015. At the same time, the number of museums increased from 4165 in 2013 to 4692 in 2015.
What, then, lies behind this interesting and encouraging phenomenon? Admittedly, the following factors must be taken into consideration. In the first place, thanks to the fast economic boom of our country over the years, increasing numbers of Chinese people can financially afford to pursue their spiritual needs. Apart from more disposable income, as our country grows more powerful, the government becomes acutely aware of the importance of preserving our national culture, so more museums have been built to meet this strategic need. Last but not least, from most people’s traveling experience, visiting museums is both entertaining and instructive.
Of course, this phenomenon, as a sign of our social progress, is always comforting and encouraging. In the years to come, I have good reason to believe that visiting museums will gain more popularity with the general public. It contributes to not only national pride and honor but also enhances patriotism by promoting a better understanding of Chinese profound culture and long history, I would strongly suggest that the government will allocate more public funds to diversity the exhibits and offer free access to more museums.