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2017年管理类联考真题及详解
2019-01-17
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同研数学名师孙华明解析

全国联考数学辅导专家、“秒杀之父”

问题求解:(第 1~15 ,每小题 3 分,共 45 下列每题给出的 ABCDE

五个选项中,只有符合试题要求的,题卡上将所选项的黑。)

1. 甲从 123 a 乙从 1234 中抽b 规定当 a > b

或者 a +1 < b 时甲的概为(     )


E法。

 

2.已知 ΔABC ΔA& B&C& 满足 AB : A¢B¢ = AC : AC¢ = 2 : 3,ÐA + ÐA¢ = π ,则 ΔABC

ΔA& B&C& 的面(      )

(A)2:3     (B) 3:5    (C) 2 : 3   (D) 2 : 5  (E) 4 : 9

E数。

 

3.将6人分成3组,每组2人,则不同的分组方式共有(     

A12B15C30D45E90

,分组问题。

 

4.甲、乙、丙三人每轮各投篮10次,投了三轮,投中数如下表:


第一轮

第二轮

第三轮

2

5

8

5

2

5

8

4

9

B ,简单分析即可。

 

5.将长、宽、高分别是1296的长方体切割成正方体,且切割后无剩余,则能切割成相同正方体的*少个数为(    

A3      B6      C24      D96      E648

选C,公约数问题。

 

6. 某品牌电冰箱连续两次降价10%后的售价是降价前的(     )

A80%     B81%    C82%    D83%     E85%

B ,简单题。

 

7. 甲、乙、丙三种货车载重量成等差数列,2辆甲种车和1辆乙种车的载重量为95吨,1辆甲种车和3辆丙种车载重量为150吨,则甲、乙、丙分别各一辆车一次*多运送货物为(     )

A125     B120     C115     D110     E105

E,列方程解应用题。

 

8. 张老师到一所中学进行招生咨询,上午接到了45名同学的咨询,其中9位同学下午又咨询了张老师,占张老师下午咨询学生的10%,一天中向张老师咨询的学生人数为(    

A81     B90     C115     D126     E135

D,简单题。


9.   某种机器人可搜索到的区域是半径为1米的圆,若该机器人沿直线行走10米,则其搜索出的区域的面积(单位:平方米)为(     )

D

 

B

  

11.  在1到100之间,能被9整除的整数的平均值是(     )

(A)       27       B36        C45       D54         E63

D

 

12.  某试卷由15道选择题组成,每道题有4个选项,只有一项是符合试题要求的,甲有6道题是能确定正确选项,有5道能排除2个错误选项,有4道能排除1个错误选项,若从每题排除后剩余的选项中选一个作为答案,则甲得满分的概率为(     )

B

 

13.  某公司用1万元购买了价格分别为1750和950的甲、乙两种办公设备,则购买的甲、乙办公设备的件数分别为(      )

A3,5    B5,3   C4,4    D2,6    E6,2

A,选项验证即可。

 

A

 

15. 老师问班上50名同学周末复习的情况,结果有20人复习过数学、30人复习过语文、6人复习过应用,且同时复习了数学和语文的有10人、语文和英语的有2人、英语和数学的有3人。若同时复习过这三门课的人数为0,则没复习过这三门课程的学生人数为

(A)   7       (B) 8       (C) 9      (D) 10      (E) 11

选C,串讲讲过。

 

二、条件充分性判断:第16-25小题,每小题3分,共30分。要求判断每题给出的条件(1)和条件(2)能否充分支持题干所陈述的结论。A、B、C、D、E五个选项为判断结果,请选择一项符合试题要求的判断,在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。

(A)  条件(1)充分,但条件(2)不充分

(B)  条件(2)充分,但条件(1)不充分

(C)  条件(1)和(2)都不充分,但联合起来充分

(D)  条件(1)充分,条件(2)也充分

(E)  条件(1)不充分,条件(2)也不充分,联合起来仍不充分

16. 某人需要处理若干份文件,第1小时处理了全部文件的,第二小时处理了剩余文件的,则此人需要处理的文件数为25份.(      )

(1)前两小时处理了10份文件.

(2)第二小时处理了5份文件.

D,题干信息太长,100%讲过。

 

17.  能确定某企业产值的月平均增长率(      )

(1)已知一月份的产值

(2)已知全年的总产值

选C,明显可以联合。

 

18、x²+y²-ax-by+c=0x轴相切,则能确定c的值.     

(1)已知a的值.

(2)已知b的值.

选A,微替换型必定选A或B。

 

19.某人从A地出发,先乘时速为220千米的动车,后转乘时速为100千米的汽车到达B地,则A,B两地的距离为960千米。(      )

(1)乘动车时间与乘汽车的时间相等。

(2)乘动车时间与乘汽车的时间之和为6小时。

选C。

20. 直线y=ax+b与抛物线y=x²有两个交点。(       )

(1)a²>4b

(2)b0

B

 

21.如图2,一个铁球沉入水池中,则能确定铁球的体积。(      )


(1)已知铁球露出水面的高度

(2)已知水深及铁球与水面交线的周长。

B,明显条件(2)比较麻烦。

 

 

22. 已知a,b,c为三个实数,则min{|a-b||b-c||a-c|}≤5.      

(1)|a|5|b|5|c|5.

(2)a+b+c=15.

A,这个容易上当。用距离考虑。

 

23. 某机构向12位教师征题,并征集到5种题型的试题52道,则能确定供题教师的人数。(     

(1)每位供题教师提供试题数相同.

(2)每位供题教师提供的题型不超过2.

C,一个等号一个不等号,100%压中。


24. 某人参加资格考试,有A类和B类选择,A类的合格标准是抽3道题至少会做2道,B类的合格标准是抽2道题需都会做,则此人参加A类合格的机会大.(      )

(1)此人A类题中有60%会做.

(2)此人B类题中有80%会做.

选C,变量缺失型。100%压中。

 

选B。课堂100%讲过,选等比不选等差。

 

孙华明点评:本套试卷的题目相对比较容易,基本都是课堂讲过的,考查了三基础,问题求解题明显比往年简单,古典概率的枚举法思想是我反复强调的,文试图也是反复强调的,分组问题也是反复强调的,不定方程的整数解也是讲到的,条件充分性判断仍旧遵循了“今生无E”的核心理念,秒杀技巧在充分性判断中运用得当,由于英语比较难,估计今年分数线总体在165到170样子,明年数学一定增加难度。

 

同研逻辑名师孙勇(机工版教材主编)解析

 

三、逻辑推理(本大题共30小题,每小题2分,共60分。下面每题所给出的五个选项中,只有一项是符合试题要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。)

26. 倪教授认为,我国工程技术领域可以考虑与国外先进技术合作,但任何涉及核心技术的项目就不能受制于人,我国的许多网络安全建设项目涉及信息核心技术,如果全盘引进国外先进技术,而不努力自主创新,我国的网络安全将受到严重威胁。

根据倪教授的陈述,可以得出以下哪项?

(A)我国有些网络建设项目不能受制于人。

(B)我国许多网络安全建设项目,不能与国外先进技术合作。

(C)我国工程技术领域的所有项目都不能受制于人。

(D)只要不是全盘引进国外先进技术,我国网络安全就不会受到严重威胁。

(E)如果能做到自主创新,我国的网络安全就不会受到严重威胁。

答案选A。由已知“任何涉及核心技术的项目就不能受制于人,我国的许多网络安全建设项目涉及信息核心技术”,可以推知A

 

27. 任何结果都不可能凭空出现,它们的背后都是有原因的,任何背后有原因的事物均可以被认识,而可以被人认识的事物都必然不是毫无规律的。

根据以上陈述,以下哪项为假?

(A)人可能认识所有事物。

(B)有些结果的出现可能毫无规律。

(C)那些可以被人认识的事物,必然有规律。

(D)任何结果出现的背后都是有原因的。

(E)任何结果都可以被人认识。

答案选B。“任何结果”到“背后都是有原因”到“均可以被认识”到“必然不是毫无规律的”,这样B必为假。

 

28、近年来,我国海外代购业务量快速增长,代购者们通常从海外购买产品,通过各种渠道避开关税,再卖给内地顾客从众牟利,却让政府损失了税收收入,某专家由此指出,政府应该严厉打击海外代购的行为。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持上述专家的观点?

(A)近期,有位前空乘服务员因在网上开设海外代购店而被我国地方法院判定有走私罪;

(B)国内一些企业生产的同类产品与海外代购产品相比,无论质量还是价格都缺乏竞争优势;

(C)海外代购提升了人民的生活水平,满足了国内部分民众对于品质生活的向往;

(D)去年,我国奢侈品海外代购规模几乎是全球奢侈品,国内门店销售额的一半,这些交易大多避开关税;

(E)国内民众的消费需求提升是伴随着我国经济发展而产生的经济现象,应以此为契机促进国内同类消费品产业的升级。

答案选D。仅有D说明逃避税收,加强“要打击海外代购”。

 

29、某剧组招募群众演员,为配合剧情,需要招4类角色,外国游客1-2名,购物者2-3名,商贩2名,路人若干,甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、己等6人可供选择,且每人在同一个场景中只能出演一个角色。已知:

(1)只有甲、乙才能出演外国游客;

(2)上述4类角色每个场景中至少有3类同时出现;

(3)每一场景中,若乙或丁出演商贩,则甲和丙出演购物者;

(4)购物者和路人的数量之和在每个场景中不超过2。

根据上述信息,可以得出以下哪项?

(A)同一场景中,若戊和己出演路人,则甲只可能演外国游客;

(B)同一场景中,若己出演外国游客,则甲只可能出演商贩;

(C)至少有2人需要在不同的场景中出演不同的角色;

(D)甲、乙、丙、丁不会出现在同一场景中同时出现;

(E)同一场景中,若丁和戊出演购物者,则乙只可能出演外国游客。

答案选E。丁、戊是购物者,由已知(3)得乙不是商贩;由(4)得乙不是路人,所以乙只能是外国游客。故E。

 

30.离家300米的学校不能上,却被安排到2公里以外的学校就读,某市一位适龄儿童在上小学时就遇到了所在区教育局这样的安排,而这一安排是区教育局根据儿童户籍所在施教区做出的。根据该市教育局规定的“就近入学”原则,儿童家长将区教育局告上法院,要求撤销原来安排,让其孩子就近入学,法院对此作出一审判决,驳回原告请求。

下列哪项*可能是法院判决的合理依据?

(A)“就近入学”不是“*近入学”,不能将入学儿童户籍地和学校的直线距离作为划分施教区的**依据。

(B)按照特定的地理要素划分,施教区中的每所小学不一定就出于该施教区的中心位置。

(C)儿童入学研究应上哪一所学校不是让适龄儿童或其家长自主选择,而是要听从政府主管部门的行政安排。

(D)“就近入学”仅仅是一个需要遵循的总体原则,儿童具体入学安排还要根据特定的情况加以变通。

(E)该区教育局划分施教区的行政行为符合法律规定,而原告孩子户籍所在施教区的确需要去离家2公里外的学校就读。

答案选E。法院驳回上诉理由必须是合乎法律,E选项说教育主管部门做法合乎法律。注意A是干扰选项,与法律无关,不能选。

 

31. 张立是一位单身白领,工作5年积累了一笔存款,由于该笔存款金额尚不足以购房,他考虑将其暂时分散投资到股票、黄金、基金、国债和外汇等5个方面。该笔存款的投资需要满足如下条件:

(1)如果黄金投资比例高于1/2,则剩余部分投入国债和股票;

(2)如果股票投资比例低于1/3,则剩余部分不能投入外汇或国债;

(3)如果外汇投资比例低于1/4,则剩余部分投入基金或黄金;

(4)国债投资比例不能低于1/6。

 

根据上述信息,可以得出以下哪项?

(A)国债投资比例高于1/2

(B)外汇投资比例不低于1/3

(C)股票投资比例不低于1/4

(D)黄金投资比例不低于1/5

(E)基金投资比例低于1/6

答案选C。条件(4)与(3)、(4)与(2)结合可知,外汇不低于1/4,股票不低于1/3。所以答案C。

 

32. 通识教育重在帮助学生掌握尽可能全面的基础知识,即帮助学生了解各个学科领域的基本常识;而人文教育则重在培育学生了解生活世界的意义,并对自己及他人行为的价值和意义做出合理的判断,形成“智识”。因此有专家指出,相比较而言,人文教育对个人未来生活的影响会更大一些。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持上述专家的断言?

(A)当今我国有些大学开设的通识教育课程远远要多于人文教育课程。

(B)“知识”是事实判断,“智识”是价值判断,两者不能相互替代。

(C)没有知识就会失去应对未来生活挑战的勇气,而错误的价值观可能会误导人的生活。

(D)关于价值和意义的判断事关个人的幸福和尊严,值得探究和思考。

(E)没有知识,人依然可以活下去;但如果没有价值和意义的追求,人只能成为没有灵魂的躯壳。

答案选E。通过对比说明知识和意义相比,后者更重要,所以E是答案。注意选项C只是说明两者都重要,不能加强后者更重要。

 

33-34题基于以下题干

丰收公司邢经理需要在下个月赴湖北、湖南、安徽、江西、江苏、浙江、福建7省进行市场调研,各省均调研一次,他的行程需满足如下条件:

    (1)第一个或*后一个调研江西省;

    (2)调研安徽省的时间早于浙江省,在这两省的调研之间调研除了福建省的另外两省;

    (3)调研福建省的时间安排在调研浙江省之前或刚好调研完浙江省之后;

    (4)第三个调研江苏省。

 

33. 如果邢经理首先赴安徽省调研,则关于他的行程,可以确定一下哪项?

    (A)第二个调研湖北省

    (B)第二个调研湖南省

    (C)第五个调研福建省

    (D)第五个调研湖北省

    (E)第五个调研浙江省

答案选C。1是安徽省,4就是浙江省,5是福建省。答案C

 

34. 如果安徽省是邢经理第二个调研的省份,则关于他的行程,可以确定一下哪项?

    (A)第一个调研江西省

    (B)第四个调研湖北省

    (C)第五个调研浙江省

    (D)第五个调研湖南省

    (E)第六个调研福建省

答案选C。2是安徽省,5就是浙江省。答案C,注意,不能选E,因为福建可以排在第一。

 

35. 王研究员:我国政府提出的“大众创业,万众创新”激励着每一个创业者。对于创业者来说,*重要的是需要一种坚持精神。不管在创业中遇到什么困难,都要坚持下去。

李教授:对于创业者来说,*重要的是要敢于尝试新技术。因为有些新技术一些大公司不敢轻易尝试,这就为创业者带来了成功的契机。

根据以上信息,以下哪项*准确地指出了王研究员与李教授的分歧所在?

(A)*重要的是敢于迎接各种创业难题的挑战,还是敢于尝试那些大公司不敢轻易尝试的新技术。

(B)*重要的是坚持创业,有毅力有恒心把事业一直做下去,还是坚持创新,做出更多的科学发现和技术发明。

(C)*重要的是坚持把创业这件事做好,成为创业大众的一员,还是努力发明新技术,成为创新万众的一员。

(D)*重要的是需要一种坚持精神,不畏艰难,还是要敢于尝试新技术,把握事业成功的契机。

(E)*重要的是坚持创业,敢于成立小公司,还是尝试新技术,敢于挑战大公司。

答案选D。一个说重点是“坚持”,一个说“尝试新技术”,*合适概括答案选D。

 

36.进入冬季以来,内含大量有毒颗粒物的雾霾频繁袭击我国部分地区。有关调查显示,持续接触高浓度污染物会直接导致10%至15%的人患有眼睛慢性炎症或干眼症。有专家由此认为,如果不采取紧急措施改善空气质量,这些疾病的发病率和相关的并发症将会增加。

以上哪项如果为真,*能支持上述专家的观点?

(A)有毒颗粒物会刺激并损害人的眼睛,长期接触会影响泪腺细胞。

(B)空气质量的改善不是短期内能做到的,许多人不得不在污染环境中工作。

(C)眼睛慢性炎症或干眼症等病例通常集中出现于花粉季。

(D)上述被调查的眼疾患者中有65%是年龄在20-40岁之间的男性。

(E)在重污染环境中采取戴护目镜、定期洗眼等措施有助于预防干眼症等眼疾。

答案选A。只有A选项说到并发症,所以答案是A,没有干扰选项。

 

37.很多成年人对于儿时熟悉的《唐诗三百首》中的许多名诗,常常仅记得几句名句,而不知诗作者或诗名。甲校中文系硕士生只有三个年级,每个年级人数相等。统计发现,一年级学生都能把改书中的名句与诗名及其作者对应起来;二年级2/3的学生能把该书中的名句与作者对应起来;三年级1/3的学生不能把该书中的名句与诗名对应起来。

根据上述信息,关于该校中文系硕士生,可以得出一下哪项?

   (A)1/3以上的硕士生不能将该书中的名句与诗名或作者对应起来。

   (B)大部分硕士生能将该书中的名句与诗名及其作者对应起来。

   (C)1/3以上的一、二年级学生不能把该书中的名句与作者对应起来。

   (D)2/3以上的一、二年级学生不能把该书中的名句与诗名对应起来。

   (E)2/3以上的一、三年级学生能把该书中的名句与诗名对应起来。

答案选E。注意已知中:名句、诗名、作者;名句、作者;名句、诗名。三种关系的不同,仔细对照只有E选项可以推出。

 

38.婴儿通过触碰物体、四处玩耍和观察成人的行为等方式来学习,但机器人通常只能按照编订的程序进行学习。于是,有些科学家试图研制学习方式更接近于婴儿的机器人。他们认为,既然婴儿是地球上*有效率的学习者,为什么不设计出能像婴儿那样不费力气就能学习的机器人呢?

以下哪项*可能是上述科学家观点的假设?

(A)婴儿的学习能力是天生的,他们的大脑与其他动物幼崽不同。

(B)通过触碰、玩耍和观察等方式来学习是地球上*有效率的学习方式。

(C)即使是*好的机器人,他们的学习能力也无法超过*差的婴儿学习者。

(D)如果机器人能像婴儿那样学习,它们的智能就有可能超过人类。

(E)成年人和现有的机器人都不能像婴儿那样毫不费力地学习。

答案选B。已知“婴儿通过触碰物体、四处玩耍和观察成人的行为等方式来学习”,科学家认为,“既然婴儿是地球上*有效率的学习者”,显然,概念之间过渡假设选B。

 

39. 针对癌症患者,一般常采用化疗手段将药物直接注入人体杀伤癌细胞,但这也可能将正常细胞和免疫细胞一同杀灭,产生较强的副作用。近来,有科学家发现,黄金纳米粒子很容易被人体癌细胞吸收,如果将其包上一层化疗药物,就可作为“运输工具”,将化疗药物准确地投放到癌细胞中。他们由此推断,微小的黄金纳米粒子能提升癌细胞化疗的效果,并能降低化疗的副作用。

以下哪项如果为真,能支持上述科学家所做出的结论?

(A)黄金纳米粒子用于癌症化疗的疗效有待大量临床检验。

(B)在体外用红外线加热已进入癌细胞的黄金纳米拉子,可以从内部杀灭癌细胞。。

(C)因为黄金所具有的特殊化学性质,黄金纳米粒子不会与人体细胞发生反应。

(D)现代医学手段已能实现黄金纳米粒子的**投送,让其所携带的化疗药物只作用于癌细胞,并不伤及其他细胞。

(E)利用常规计算机断层扫描,医生容易判定黄金纳米粒子是否已投放到癌细胞中。

答案选D。要加强“黄金纳米粒子能提升癌细胞化疗的效果,并能降低化疗的副作用”只有D既提及治疗,同时无副作用(不伤害其他细胞)。

 

40.甲:己所不欲,勿施于人。

乙:我反对。己所欲,则施于人。

以下哪项与上述对话方式*为相似?

(A)甲:人非草木,孰能无情?

     乙:我反对。草木无情,但人有情。

(B)甲:人不犯我,我不犯人。

     乙:我反对。人若犯我,我就犯人。

(C)甲:人无远虑,必有近忧。

     乙:我反对。人有远虑,亦有近忧。

(D)甲:不在其位,不谋其政。

     乙:我反对。在其位,则行其政。

(E)甲:不入虎穴,焉得虎子。

     乙:我反对。如得虎子,必入虎穴。

答案选B。B选项与题干类似结构“A推B;反对,非A推非B”,B是正确答案。注意不能选D,谋其政的概念被偷换了。

 

41. 颜子、曾寅、孟申、荀辰申请一个中国传统文化建设项目。根据规定,该项目的主持人只能有一名,且在上述4位申请者中产生:包括主持人在内,项目组成员不能超过两位。另外,各位申请者在申请答辩时作出如下陈述:

(1)颜子:如果我成为主持人,将邀请曾寅或荀辰作为项目组成员;

(2)曾寅:如果我成为主持人,将邀请颜子或孟申作为项目组成员;

(3)荀辰:只有颜子成为项目组成员,我才能成为主持人;

(4)孟申:只有荀辰或颜子成为项目组成员,我才能成为主持人。

假定4人陈述都为真,关于项目组成员的组合,以下哪项是不可能的?

(A)孟申、曾寅              (B)荀辰、孟申

(C)曾寅、荀辰              (D)颜子、孟申

(E)颜子、荀辰

答案选C。带入验证,并且将选项中个人做为主持人,寻找已知相对应若某人是主持人的假言判断,只有C选项不符合要求。

 

42. 研究者调查了一组大学毕业即从事有规律的工作正好满8年的白领,发现他们的体重比刚毕业时平均增加了8公斤。研究者由此得出结论,有规律的工作会增加人们的体重。

关于上述结论的正确性,需要询问的关键问题是以下哪项?

(A)和该组调查对象其他情况相仿且经常进行体育锻炼的人,在同样的8年中体重有怎样的变化?

(B)该组调查对象的体重在8年后是否会继续增加?

(C)为什么调查关注的时间段是对象在毕业工作后8年,而不是7年或者9年?

(D)该组调查对象中男性和女性的体重增加是否有较大差异?

(E)和该组调查对象其他情况相仿但没有从事有规律工作的人,在同样的8年中体重有怎样的变化?

答案选E。E选项是对照,正确答案,无干扰选项。

 

43. 赵默是一位优秀的企业家。因为如果一个人既拥有在国内外知名学府和研究机构工作的经历,又有担任项目负责人的管理经验,那么他就能成为一位优秀的企业家。

以下哪项与上述论证*为相似?

(A)人力资源是企业的核心资源。因为如果不开展各类文化活动,就不能提升员工岗位技能,也不能增强团队的凝聚力和战斗力。

(B)袁清是一位好作家。因为好作家都具有较强的观察能力、想象能力及表达能力。

(C)青年是企业发展的未来。因此,企业只有激发青年的青春力量,才能促其早日成才。

(D)人力资源是企业的核心资源。因为如果不开展各类文化活动,就不能提升员工岗位技能,也不能增强团队的凝聚力和战斗力。

(E)风云企业具有凝聚力。因为如果一个企业能引导和帮助员工树立目标,提升能力,就能使企业具有凝聚力。

答案选E。题干充分假言判断,肯定。AD否定排除;B无假言判断排出;C必要假言判断排出。答案E。

 

44. 爱书成痴注定会藏书。大多数藏书家也会读一些自己收藏的书;但有些藏书家却因喜爱书的价值和精致装帧而购书收藏,至于阅读则放到了以后闲暇的时间,而一旦他们这样想,这些新购的书就很可能不被阅读了。但是,这些受到“冷遇”的书只要被友人借去一本,藏书家就会失魂落魄,整日心神不安。

根据上述信息,可以得出以下哪项?

(A)有些藏书家将自己的藏书当做友人。

(B)有些藏书家喜欢闲暇时读自己的藏书。

(C)有些藏书家会读遍自己收藏的书。

(D)有些藏书家不会立即读自己新购的书。

(E)有些藏书家从不读自己收藏的书。

答案选D。由已知“有些藏书家却因喜爱书的价值和精致装帧而购书收藏,至于阅读则放到了以后闲暇的时间”,可知答案选D。

 

45. 人们通常认为,幸福能够增进健康、有利于长寿,而不幸福则是健康状况不佳的直接原因,但*近有研究人员对3000多人的生活状况调查后发现,幸福或不幸福并不意味着死亡的风险会相应地变得更低或更高。他们由此指出,疾病可能会导致不幸福,但不幸福本身并不会对健康状况造成损害。

以下哪项如果为真,*能质疑上述研究人员的论证?

(A)幸福是个体的一种心理体验,要求被调查对象准确断定其幸福程度有一定的难度。

(B)有些高寿老人的人生经历较为坎坷,他们有时过得并不幸福。

(C)有些患有重大疾病的人乐观向上,积极与疾病抗争,他们的幸福感比较高。

(D)人的死亡风险低并不意味着健康状况好,死亡风险高也不意味着健康状况差。

(E)少数个体死亡风险的高低难以进行准确评估。

答案选D。调查的内容是“幸福或不幸福并不意味着死亡的风险会相应地变得更低或更高”,结论“疾病可能会导致不幸福,但不幸福本身并不会对健康状况造成损害”,在“死亡的风险”和“健康状况”之间存在概念跳跃,所以D是正确答案。

 

46. 甲:只有加强知识产权保护,才能推动科技创新。

乙:我不同意。过分强化知识产权保护,肯定不能推动科技创新。

以下哪项与上述反驳方式*为类似?

(A)妻子:孩子只有刻苦学习,才能取得好成绩。

丈夫:也不尽然。学习光知道刻苦而不能思考,也不一定会取得好成绩。

(B)母亲:只有从小事做起,将来才有可能做成大事。

孩子:老妈你错了。如果我们每天只是做小事,将来肯定做不成大事。

(C)老板:只有给公司带来回报,公司才能给他带来回报。

员工:不对呀。我上月帮公司谈成一笔大业务,可是只得到1%的奖励。

(D)老师:只有读书,才能改变命运。

学生:我觉得不是这样。不读书,命运会有更大的改变。

(E)顾客:这件商品只有价格再便宜些,才会有人来买。

商人:不可能。这件商品如果价格再便宜一些,我就要去喝西北风了。

答案选B。乙的反驳:偷换概念,结论确定。B选项类似是正确答案。注意A的结论不确定,不能选。其他结构都不同。

 

47. 某**风景区有“妙笔生花”“猴子观海”“仙人晒靴”“美人梳妆”“阳关三叠”“禅心向天”等6个景点。为方便游人,景区提示如下:

(1)只有先游“猴子观海”,才能游“妙笔生花”;

(2)只有先游“阳关三叠”,才能游“仙人晒靴”;

(3)如果游“美人梳妆”就要先游“妙笔生花”;

(4)“禅心向天”应第4个游览,之后才可游览“仙人晒靴”。

张先生按照上述提示,顺利游览了上述6个景区。

根据上述信息,关于张先生的游览顺序,以下哪项不可能为真?

(A)第一个游览“猴子观海”;   (B)第二个游览“阳关三叠”;

(C)第三个游览“美人梳妆”;   (D)第五个游览“妙笔生花”;

(E)第六个游览“仙人晒靴”。

答案选D。已知:“猴”早于“妙”早于“美”;“禅”4与“阳”都早于“仙”;显然,“妙”5时,后面无法放“美”和“仙”,故答案选D。

 

48.“自我陶醉人格”,是以过分重视自己为主要特点的人格障碍。它有多种具体特征:过高估计自己的重要性,夸大自己的成就;对批评反应强烈,希望他人注意自己和羡慕自己;经常沉湎于幻想中,把自己看成是特殊的人;人际关系不稳定;嫉妒他人,损人利己。

以下各项自我陈述中,除了哪项均能体现上述“自我陶醉人格”的特征?

(A)我是这个团队的灵魂,一旦我离开了这个团队,特么将一事无成。

(B)他有什么资格批评我?大家看看,他的能力连我一半都不到。

(C)我的家庭条件不好,但不愿意被别人看不起,所以我借钱买了一部智能手机。

(D)这么重要的活动竟然没有邀请我参加,组织者的人品肯定有问题,不值得跟这样的人交往。

(E)我刚接手别人很多年没有做成的事情,我跟他们完全不在一个层次,相信很快就会将事情搞定。

答案选C。描述的个性是高估自己,只有C选项是相反的“自卑感”体现。答案选C。

 

49. 通常情况下,长期在寒冷环境中生活的居民可以有更强的抗寒能力。相比于我国的南方地区,我国北方地区冬天的平均温度要低很多。然而有趣的是,现在很多北方地区的居民并不具有我们所以为的抗寒能力,相当多的北方人到南方来过冬,竟然难以忍受南方的寒冷天气,怕冷程度甚至远超于当地人。

以下哪项如果为真,*能解释上述现象?

(A)一些北方人认为南方温暖,他们去南方过冬时往往对保暖工作做得不够充分。

(B)南方地区冬天虽然平均气温比北方高,但也存在极端低温的天气。

(C)北方地区在冬天通常启用供暖设备,其室内温度往往比南方高出很多。

(D)有些北方人是从南方迁过去的,他们没有完全适应北方的气候。

(E)南方地区湿度较大,冬天感受到的寒冷程度超出气象意义上的温度指标。

答案选E。不能选C,因为不是解释在室内感觉冷,而是北方人到南方无论哪里都感觉冷,E的湿度解释*合理。

 

50. 译制片配音,作为一种特有的艺术形式,曾在我国广受欢迎。然而时过境迁,现在许多人已不喜欢看配过音的外国影视剧。他们觉得还是听原汁原味的声音才感觉到位。有专家由此断言,配音已失去观众,必将退出历史舞台。

以下各项如果为真,则除哪项外都能支持上述专家的观点?

(A)很多上了年纪的国人仍习惯看配过音的外国影视剧,而在国内放映的外国大片有的仍然是配过音的。

(B)配音是一种艺术再创造,倾注了配音艺术家的心血,但有的人对此并不领情,反而觉得配音妨碍了他们对原剧的欣赏。

(C)许多中国人通晓外文,观赏外国原版影视剧并不存在语言的困难;即使不懂外文,边看中文字幕边听原声也不影响理解剧情。

(D)随着对外交流的加强,现在外国影视剧大量涌入国内,有的国人已经等不及慢条斯理、精工细作的配音了。

(E)现在有外国影视剧配音难以模仿剧中演员的出色嗓音,有时也与剧情不符,对此观众并不接受。

答案选A。要加强配音已失去观众,必将退出历史舞台,A选项还有观众,削弱。B选项有干扰,但选项中“有人的观点”与专家相同,仍属于加强。

 

51~52题 基于以下题干

六一节快到了。幼儿园老师为班上的小明、小雷、小刚、小芳、小花等5位小朋友准备了红、橙、黄、绿、青、蓝、紫等7份礼物。已知所有礼物都送了出去,每份礼物只能由一人获得,每人*多获得两份礼物。另外,礼物派送还需要满足如下要求:

(1)如果小明收到橙色礼物,则小芳会收到蓝色礼物;

(2)如果小雷没有收到红色礼物,则小芳不会收到蓝色礼物;

(3)如果小刚没有收到黄色礼物,则小花不会收到紫色礼物;

(4)没有人既能收到黄色礼物,又能收到绿色礼物;

(5)小明只收到橙色礼物,而小花只收到紫色礼物。

51. 根据上述信息,以下哪项可能为真?

(A)小明和小芳都收到两份礼物;     (B)小雷和小刚都收到两份礼物;

(C)小刚和小花都收到两份礼物;     (D)小芳和小花都收到两份礼物;

(E)小明和小雷都收到两份礼物。

答案选B。由已知(5)可以推知,小明和小花仅收到一份礼物;排出ACDE,答案仅有B。

 

52. 根据上述信息,如果小刚收到两份礼物,则可以得出以下哪项?

(A)小雷收到红色和绿色两份礼物;   (B)小刚收到黄色和蓝色两份礼物;

(C)小芳收到绿色和蓝色两份礼物;   (D)小刚收到黄色和青色两份礼物;

(E)小芳收到青色和蓝色两份礼物。

答案选D。已知(5)、(3)可以推知小刚收到黄色礼物;再由(1)(2)得小芳蓝色、小雷红色;再由(4)得小刚另一份礼物只能青色。故答案选D。

 

53. 某民乐小组拟购买几种乐器,购买要求如下:

   (1) 二胡、箫至多购买一种;

   (2) 笛子、二胡和古筝至少购买一种;

   (3) 箫、古筝、唢呐内至少购买两种;

   (4) 如果购买箫,则不购买笛子。

    根据以上要求,可以得出以下哪项?

   (A)至多购买了3种乐器

   (B)箫、笛子至少购买一种

   (C)至少要购买3种乐器

   (D)古筝、二胡至少购买一种

   (E)一定要购买唢呐

答案选D。直接带入验证,若古筝、二胡都不买,就要买笛子,这样由(4)就不能买箫,但是由(3)却要买箫,所以不符合题意。故答案选D。

 

54~55 基于以下题干

某影城将在“十一”黄金周7天(周一至周日)放映14部电影,其中有5部科幻片,3部警匪片,3部武侠片,2部战争片,一部爱情片。限于条件,影城每天放映两部电影,已知。

(1)除科幻片安排在周四外,其余6天每天放映的两部电影都属于不同的类型;

(2)爱情片安排在周日;

(3)科幻片或武侠片没有安排在同一天;

(4)警匪片和战争片没有安排在同一天。

 

54.根据以上信息,以下哪项两部电影不可能安排在同一天放映?

(A)警匪片和爱情片

(B)科幻片和警匪片

(C)武侠片和战争片

(D)武侠片和警匪片

(D)科幻片和战争片

 

答案选A。由已知可以知道,周四上演两场科幻片;周日上演一场爱情片;另外3部武侠片和科幻片不能同一天;它们只能在周一、二、三和五、六、日;如表。因此,周日与爱情片同印的或者是科幻片、或者是武侠片。故答案选A。

 

周一

周二

周三

周四

周五

周六

周日




科幻片



爱情片

武侠片

武侠片

武侠片

科幻片

科幻片

科幻片

科幻片

 

55. 根据以上信息,如果同类影片放映日期连续,则周六可以放映的电影是哪项?

(A)科幻片和警匪片

(B)武侠片和警匪片

(C)科幻片和战争片

(D)科幻片和武侠片

(E)警匪片和战争片

答案选C。由于要同一部连续排片;所以将三部警匪片只能填入周一、二、三;战争片填

入周五、六;注意武侠片和科幻片的位置可以对调;所以周六可以是战争片和科幻片,或者是战争片和武侠片。故答案选C。

周一

周二

周三

周四

周五

周六

周日

警匪片

警匪片

警匪片

科幻片

战争片

战争片

爱情片

武侠片

武侠片

武侠片

科幻片

科幻片

科幻片

科幻片

 

 

四、写作:第56-57小题,共65分,其中论证有效性分析30分,论说文35分。

56. 论证有效性分析:分析下述论证中存在的缺陷和漏洞,选择若干要点,写一篇600字左右的文章,对该论证的有效性进行分析和评论。(论证有效性分析的一般要点是:概念特别是核心概念的界定和使用是否准确并前后一致,有无各种明显的逻辑错误,论证的论据是否成立并支持结论,结论成立的条件是否充分等等。)

 

如果我们把古代荀子、商鞅、韩飞等人的一些主张归纳起来,可以得出如下一套理论:

人的本性是“好荣恶物,好利恶害”的,所以人们都会有追求奖赏,逃避刑罚。因此拥有足够权利的国君只要利用赏罚就可以把臣民治理好了。

既然人的本性是好利恶害的,那么在选拔官员时,既没有可能也没有必要去寻求那些不求私利的廉洁之士,因为世界上根本不存在这样的人。廉政建设的关键其实只在于任用官员之后有效地防止他们以权谋私。

怎样防止官员以权谋私呢?国君通常依靠设置监察官的方法,这种方法其实是不合理的。因为监察官也是人,也是好利恶害的。所以依靠监察官去制止其他官员以权谋私就是让一部分以权谋私者去制止另一部分人以权谋私。结果只能使他们共谋私利。

既然依靠设置监察官的方法不合理,那么依靠什么呢?可以利用赏罚的方法促使臣民去监督。谁揭发官员的以权谋私,就奖赏谁,谁不揭发官员的以权谋私就惩罚谁,臣民处于好利恶害的本性就会揭发官员的以权谋私。

 

57.论说文:根据下述材料,写一篇700字左右的论说文,题目自拟。

一家企业遇到了这样一个问题:究竟是把有限的资金用于扩大生产呢,还是用于研发新产品。

有人主张投资扩大生产,因为根据市场调查,原产品还可以畅销三到五年,由此可以获得丰厚的利润。

有人主张投资研发新产品,因为这样做,虽然有很大的危险,但风险背后有数倍甚至数十倍于前者的利润。

 



2017管理类联考英语真题及解析

英语(二)

同研英语名师马红解析

复旦大学英语名师

 

Selection   Use of English

 

DirectionsRead the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark ABC or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

 

People have speculated for centuries about a future without work, and today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again   1  that technology is replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by   2  : A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.

  A different, less paranoid, and not mutually exclusive  3  holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one   4  by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives  5  , people will simply become lazy and depressed.  6  , today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for  7  Americans. Also, some research suggests that the  8  for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addiction  9  poorly-educated, middle-aged people is a shortage of well-paid jobs. Another study shows that people are often happier at work than in their free time. Perhaps this is why many  10  the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

  But it doesn’t  11  follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with malaise. Such visions are based on the  12  of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the  13  of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could  14  strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the  15  of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a squandering of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway who has written about a world without work. “Global surveys find that the vast majority of people are unhappy at work.”

  These days, because leisure time is relatively   16  for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional  17  of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel  18  ,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself  19  a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for  20  matters.

1. [A] boasting           [B] denying         [C] warning         [D] ensuring

2. [A] inequality             [B] instability        [C] unreliability      [D] uncertainty

3. [A] policy             [B] guideline         [C] resolution        [D] prediction

4. [A] characterized       [B] divided         [C] balanced        [D] measured

5. [A] wisdom             [B] meaning        [C] glory            [D] freedom

6. [A] instead              [B] indeed          [C] thus            [D] nevertheless

7. [A] rich              [B] urban            [C] working         [D] educated

8. [A] explanation        [B] requirement       [C] compensation     [D] substitute

9. [A] under             [B] beyond         [C] alongside         [D] among

10.[A] leave behind       [B] make up         [C] worry about      [D] set aside

11.[A] statistically         [B] occasionally      [C] necessarily        [D] economically

12.[A] chances           [B] downsides       [C] benefits          [D] principles

13.[A] absence            [B] height           [C] face            [D] course

14.[A] disturb           [B] restore           [C] exclude         [D] yield

15.[A] model             [B] practice          [C] virtue            [D] hardship

16.[A] tricky             [B] lengthy           [C] mysterious       [D] scarce

17.[A] demands          [B] standards         [C] qualities         [D] threats

18.[A] ignored           [B] tired             [C] confused        [D] starved

19.[A] off               [B] against            [C] behind          [D] into

20.[A] technological       [B] professional        [C] educational      [D] interpersonal

 

答案:1-5 . CADAB   6-10 . BCADC   11-15 . CBADC   16-20. DABDB

 

 

Selection Reading Comprehension

 

Part A

DirectionsRead the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing

 ABC or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

Every Saturday morning at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Park run Phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from  Andrew  Baddeley’s  world  record 13 minutes 48 Seconds up to an hour.

 Park run  is  succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Fames would be to lever a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did  rise, by nearly 2million in the run-up to 2012-but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official  retrospections  Continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.”The success of  Park run offers answers.

Park run is not a race but a time trial. Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sport and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.

Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a  fundamentally “grassroots” concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.

 

21.According to Paragraph 1,Parkrun has______

A created many jobs

B gained great popularity

C become an official festival

D strengthened community ties

B gained great popularity

归纳题, 受到大众欢迎。 The part run phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad 由此得公园跑步深受欢迎。

 

22.The author believes that London’s Olympic ”legacy” has failed to______

A boost population growth

B promote sport participation
C improve the city's
D increase sport hours in schools

B promote sport participation

细节题 奥运没有提高公共参与。第二段Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Fames would be to lever a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. 此外,参加运动人数锐减,Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate 由此得出没有提高参加运动人数。

 

23.Park run is different from Olympics games in that it_______

A.aims at discovering talents

B.focus on mass competition

C.does on attract first-timers

D.does not emphasize elitism

D does not emphasize elitism

不强调优秀。第三段Park run is not a race but a time trial. Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining 同时要考虑奥运特点,The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing,奥运也希望更多人参与,否定mass participation, 选择不强调优秀。

sport and to produce more elite athletes.

 

24 .With regard to mass sports, the author holds that governments should______

A increase funds for sports clubs

B supervise local sports associations

C invest in public sports facilities

D organize “grassroots” sports event

C invest in public sports facilities

增加公共运动的投入。 *后一段,If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. 政府理应提供运动场地和经费,鼓励学校提供运动条件。

 

25.The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is ______

A critical

B tolerant

C uncertain

D sympathetic

【A】     critical  

批评的 But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. 历届政府一直出售绿化地带,地方政府减少对运动投入和越发少关心运动。

 

 

Text 2

  With so much focus on Children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”

 

Radesky has studied the use of mobile phone and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who used devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interaction with their children.  During a separate observation she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.

Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive-as they often are when absorbed in a device-it can be extremely disconcerting for the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s.

In it, a mother is asked to interact with her children in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback. The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. “Parents don’t have to be exquisitely present at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expression of an emotional need,  3”says Radesky.

On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children:“It’s based on a somewhat fantasized very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way.

This can make them feel happier, which lets them to be more available to their child the rest of the time.

 

26. According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to_____

A. absorb user attention

B. increase work efficiency

C. simplify routine matters

D. better interpersonal relations

A absorb user attention

第一段“ tech is designed to really suck you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”  技术设计理念就是把人吸引住,让人*大量的投入进去。

 

27. Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices_____

A. takes away babies’ appetite

B. distracts children’s attention

C. reduces mother-child communication

D. shows down babies’ verbal development

Creduces mother-child communication

细节题 “a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who used devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interaction with their children.“ 母亲和孩子的语言和非语言互动均减少。

 

28. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” to show that______

A. it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions

B. parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs

C. verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange

D. children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood

Bparents need to respond to children’s emotional needs  

第三段“Parents don’t have to be exquisitely present at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expression of an emotional need, 转折词后提到父母应对和关注孩子的语言和非语言的情感需求。

 

29. The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to______

A. protects kids from exposure to wild fantasies

B. teach their kids at least 30000 words a year

C. remain concerned about kids’ use of screens

D. ensure constant interaction with their children

D ensure constant interaction with their children

虽然这观点有点过分,但是还是强调父母和孩子的互动和交流。

 

30. According to Tronick, kids’ use of screens may_______

A. make their parents more creative

B. give their parents some free time

C. help them with their homework

D. help them become more attentive

B give their parents some free time 细节题

*后一段“Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child.”孩子用屏幕学习,让父母有空做家务,洗澡或稍有片刻不管孩子。

 

Text 3

Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often cause students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic.

But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There’s always a constant fear of failing behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line”, whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or a lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits- in fact, it probably enhances it.

Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not.  Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. 2 Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being throwing into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.

If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choice. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. 4 This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor-understanding of the themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. 4 At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.

 

31.One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that­_____

[A]they think it academically misleading.

[B]they have a lot of fun to expect in college.

[C]it feels strange to do differently from others.

[D]it seems worthless to take off-campus courses.

Cit feels strange to do differently from others.

细节题。第一段if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic. 高中毕业停学一年,觉得自己做其他同龄人不一样的事情,有点怪怪的,故不敢为之。

 

32Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps______

A. keep students from being unrealistic

B. lower risks in choosing careers.

C. ease freshmen’s financial burdens

D. relieve freshmen of pressures.

Drelieve freshmen of pressures

推断题。从Studies from the United States and Australia

 

show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not.  Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. 一年不读书让他们能准备好独立生活,担当责任,应对新环境等一年级新生常常苦苦挣扎应对的事,利用关键词freshman 推出D

 

33. The word “acclimation“ (line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to______

A. adaptation

B. application

C .motivation

D .competition

【A】    adaptation 

利用原词acclimation 来自名词climate, 得出适应。

 

34. A gap year may save money for students by helping them_______

A. avoid academic failures

B .establish long-term goals

C .switch to another college

D. decide on the right major

Ddecide on the right major 

*后一部份主要提及大学生进校后换专业的问题,“nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once.” 但是“. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.”利用一年时间思考可避免压力(肯定32题的D项)又可省钱。

 

35. The most suitable title for this text would be_____.

A. In Favor the GAP Year

B. The ABCs of the GAP Year

C. The GAP Year Comes Back

D. The GAP Year: A Dilemma

AIn Favor the GAP Year 

主旨题。全文作者赞同高中生毕业后,停学一年,然后再读大学。此文*后一句可视为文章的中心句,概括此文。

 

 

Text 4

Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.

In 2015,the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half its S5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.  In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency’s other work-such as forest conservation , watershed and cultural resources management ,and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.

Another nationwide concern is whether public funds other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts .As Moritz puts it , how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?

“It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country, he says.”We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like,’ Wait a minute ,is this OK?’ Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard of the landscape?”

Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, research hers say.

For one thing conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade ,the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.

While climate is a key element, Maritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation. 3

“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to” an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”

At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado.

But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.

“We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”

 

36. More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they______

A. Exhausted unprecedented management efforts

B. Consumed a record-high percentage of budget

C. Severely damaged the ecology of western states

D. Caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure

B Consumed a record-high percentage of budget 

细节题,In 2015,the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half its S5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. 2015年的救火费用是前20年的比例的两倍。

 

37. Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to_______

A raise more funds for fire-prone areas

B avoid the redirection of federal money

C find wildfire-free parts of the landscape

D Guarantee safer spending of public funds

D Guarantee safer spending of public funds 

推断题从We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like,’ Wait a minute ,is this OK?’ Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard of the landscape?” 我们得把钱投在风险小的地区,推出更安全使用公共经费。

 

38. While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that______

A public debates have not settled yet

B fire-fighting conditions are improving

C Other factors should not be overlooked

D A shift in the view of fire has taken place

C Other factors should not be overlooked

细节题。 原文提到“While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.” 虽然气候是重要因素,但是等式其他因素也得考虑。

 

39.The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to ______

A. Discover the fundamental makeup of nature

B. Explore the mechanism of the human systems

C. Maximize the role of landscape in human life

D. Understand the interrelations of man and nature

D Understand the interrelations of man and nature

细节题“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an  overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. 没有考虑到人和自然的互相关联和互相作用关系,才会有现在过于简单的解决问题的方案。

 

40. Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should_

A. do away with

B. Come to terms with

C. Pay a price for

D. Keep away from

B come to terms with  

接受  推断题。出题于“But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible” 火是人类生活的必然一部份的态度是制定确保生活安全的相关法律,政策和实践的关键。

 

 

Part B

Directions: Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column

 

to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the  ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

 

The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. “We don’t make anything anymore,” he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.

Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing

But there is also a different way to look at the data.

Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennia’s may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.

For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers—and upward pressure on wages. “They’re harder to find and they have job offers,” says Jay Dun well, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, “They may be coming [into the workforce], but they’ve been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing,” Mr. Dun well has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.

At Roman Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.

At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he’s trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It’s his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. “I love working with tools. I love creating.” he says.

But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory.  Millennia’s “remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,” says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.

The 2008-09 recession was another blow. And advances in computing and robotics offer new ways for factory owners to increase productivity using fewer workers.

  The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr , a business professor at Montcalm Community College. “There’re enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t need to have much skill. It’s that gap in between, and that’s where the problem is. ”

When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades.

Electricians, plumbers, and pipe fitters are in a short supply across Michigan and elsewhere vocational schools and union-run apprenticeships aren’t keeping pace with demand and older trades people are leaving the workforce . Now shortages are appearing the mid-skill levels.

   “The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr , a business professor at Montcalm Community College an hour from Grand Rapids .” There’s enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t  need to have much skill. It’s that gap in between ,and that’s where the problem is.”

   Ms. Park of Grand Rapids Community College points to another key to luring Millennia’s into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people while flexibility. “Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives ,” she says. 

 

41. Jay   Dun well

A. Points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything   anymore

42.Jason  Stenquist

B. believes that it is important to keep a close eyes   on the age of his workers

43. Birgit  klohs

C. says that he switched to electrical engineering   because he loves working with tools

44. Rob   Spohr

D. points out that there are enough people to fill the   jobs that don’t need much skill

45. Julie  Parks

E. points out that a work/life balance can attract   young people into  manufacturing


F. says that for factory owners, workers are harder to   find because of stiff competition


G. says that the  manufacturing recession is   to blame for the lay-off of the young people’s parents

 

 41-45  FCGDE

 

Section III  Translation

 

46Directions:

Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing. This is when I notice the course “Fashion Media &Promotion”.

 

46.译文:

我的梦想一直是在时尚和出版的某个领域工作。中学毕业前两年,我参加了一门缝纫和设计课程,并且认为我将走时尚设计之路。但是在课程进行期间我意识到在这个领域里,我不是很出色,未来不可能和其他有创造力的人竞争,因此我断定设计对我来说不是一条正确的道路。在我申请上大学之前,我告诉每个人我会学习新闻专业,因为写作过去是,现在仍然是我*喜欢做的事之一。但是说实话,我之所以这样说是因为我认为时尚和我的结合只是一个梦想,并且我知道除了我以外,没有人会把我和时尚产业联想在一起。出于这个原因,我决定寻找一门与时尚有关,但又包含写作的课程。就是在这个时候,我注意到了时尚媒介和推广这门课程。

 

 

Section IV  Writing

Part A

47.Directions:

Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to

1) Accept the  invitation , and

2) Introduce the key points of your presentation.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead

Do not write your address.(10 points)

 

47小作文解析:

Dear Professor Williams,

I am much obliged and honored to receive your invitation, asking me to give a lecture about the Chinese culture to a group of international students in your college. I would accept it with great pleasure. I would confine my lecture to three parts, a brief introduction to Chinese history, a glimpse of characteristics of Chinese mentality and a touch of Chinese culture respectively. I would like to make comparison between Chinese culture and western one, complete with the differences between Chinese mentality and western one which may lie behind the gap between the two.

To conclude my speech, I would also like to offer these international students with specific examples, with a five-minute video showing the profound but interesting Chinese culture and its impact.

 I do hope that my presentation will capture the students’ attention and arouse their interest in Chinese culture. Any of your suggestions are highly appreciated and welcome.

Looking forward to your reply.

 

Best regards

Li Ming

 

Part B

48.Directions

Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1)interpret the chart, and

2)give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15points)

 

                                             

 

The Boom of Museum Visiting

As is obviously indicated in the graph, the past few years witnessed a steady increase in the numbers of both museums and museum visitors. Take it for an example, the number of museum visitors increased from 0.6378 billion in 2013 to 0.6378 billion in 2015. At the same time, the number of museums increased from 4165  in 2013 to 4692 in 2015.

What, then, lies behind this interesting and encouraging phenomenon? Admittedly, the following factors must be taken into consideration. In the first place, thanks to the fast economic boom of our country over the years, increasing numbers of Chinese people can financially afford to pursue their spiritual needs. Apart from more disposable income, as our country grows more powerful, the government becomes acutely aware of the importance of preserving our national culture, so more museums have been built to meet this strategic need. Last but not least, from most people’s traveling experience, visiting museums is both entertaining and instructive.

Of course, this phenomenon, as a sign of our social progress, is always comforting and encouraging. In the years to come, I have good reason to believe that visiting museums will gain more popularity with the general public. It contributes to not only national pride and honor but also enhances patriotism by promoting a better understanding of Chinese profound culture and long history, I would strongly suggest that the government will allocate more public funds to diversity the exhibits and offer free access to more museums.

 


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