Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,Cor D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10points)
Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have__1__ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compaerd to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually__2__. For example,heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women.__3___,among the elderly,being somewhat overweight is often an __4__ of good health.
Of even greater __5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined _6__ body mass index,or BMI .BMI __7__ body mass divided by the square of height.An adult with BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight.And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity,__8__, can be divided into moderately obese,severely obese ,and very severely obese.
While such numerical standards seem __9__,they are not .Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat.Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit,___10__ others with a low BMI may be in poor __11__.For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12__ as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a __13__ BMI.
Today we have a(n) __14__ to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes __15__ in the media with their faces covered . Stereotypes _16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17__ very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
Negative attitudes toward obesity,__18___ in health concerns,have stimulated a number of anti-obesity __19___.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facileties.,Many emplovers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives.Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign _20___ childhood obesity.even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A，B，C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.（40 points）
What would you do with 5590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mae Kenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in the could do worse than read Hoppy Money by Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton.
These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive . Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time –as stories –particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason McDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib-a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment ,not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good world, and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people around .Not everyone will agree with the authors policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers, But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.
21.According to Dunnand Norton,While of the following is the most rewarding purchase?
[A] A rich meal
[B] A special tour
[C]a stylish car
[D]A big house
选 B. 细节题，答案定位在第四句：It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. 答案在 AB 里面选，unique meal 不等于 rich meal,排除.
22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’watching TV
选 A. 细节态度题。文章作者对于美国人看电视的态度， 排除 CD, 作者的态度是负向的，选 A
定位在(something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it) hardly jollier 负向，选 A
23.McRib is mentioned in Paragraph 3 to show that
[A]popularity usually comes after quality
[B]consumers are sometimes irrational
[C]marketing tricks are often effective
[D] rarity generally increases pleasure
选 D. 细节题，这个题目需要看懂例子里的 restrict the availiabity 限制 availability 获得，就是限量供应，显得让人买到的时候觉得幸福，快乐，答案排除对象 A,quality 无 B,consumer irrational 无中生有 C，marketing tricks *大干扰项 D .正确 rarity **
McDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib-a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
24.According to the last paragraph.Happy Money
[A] has left much room for readers’creticism
[B] may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
[C]has predicated a wider income gap in theUS
[D]may give its readers a sense of achivement
选 B. 细节题，题目没看清就容易做错，Happy Money 是一本书，排除 CD ,根据*后一句话转账之前说有人不同意可以排除 A,选B.
定位在*后一段的.Not everyone will agree with the authors policy ideas, which range from
mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers, but 之后,most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.
25.This text mainly discusses how to
[A]balance feeling good and spending monye
[B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries
[C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent
[D] become more reasonable in spending on luxuries
选 C. 关键词在 spending money 和 feeling happy 两者如何平衡文章中没提及。
线索一：第二段 Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, 1 say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. 1 These purchases often become more valuable with time –as stories –particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others. 购物带来的满足感很快消失，原先让人怦然心动的帽子成了旧帽子， 诸如意义非凡的旅行，与众不同的大餐，甚至看场电影等会随着时间推移，变得越发有价值。
线索二：第三段 This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery
winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” 这是介绍一本书, 帮助挣钱的和得巨奖学习如何花钱, 物有所值,有*大的幸福感. （Line 1 para 3 ）
但 [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries 是干扰项，获得巨奖是这篇文章中开头举出的一个例子，但本文不只针对那些获得大奖的人，也有挣工资养家的，教会他们如何花钱得到幸福。
An article in Scientific American has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing(to use the psychological terminology)strategies to achieve this. Social psychologists have amassed oceans of research into what they call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70%of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93%in driving(across the ages and genders)and 85% at getting on well with
others-all obviously statistical impossibilities.
We rose-tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem. We strut around thinking we’re hot stuff.
Psychologist and behavioural scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key study into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather than have people simply rate their beauty compared with others, he asked them to identify an original photograph of themselves from a lineup including versions that had been morphed to appear more and less attractive. Visual recpgnition, reads the study, is ”an automatic psychological process, occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image-which most did – they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that those who self-enhanced the most (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored pictures were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact, those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other markers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we have are any evidence of personal delusion,” says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves.” If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Eplet’s study, it makes sense that many people hate photographs of themselves so viscerally – on one level, they don’t even recognize the person in the picture as themselves. Facebook, therefore, is a self-enhancer’s paradise, where people can share only the flukiest of flattering photos, the cream of their wit style Beauty , intellect and lifestyls .It’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest, says Catalina Toma of Wisconsin-Madison University, “but they portray an idealized version of themselves”.(People are much more likely to out-and-out lie on dating websites, to an audience of stangers.)
26.According to the first paragraph, social psychologists have found that
[A]our self-ratings are unrealistically high
[B]illusory superiority is a baseless effect
[C]self-enhancing strategies are ineffective
[D]our need for leadership is unnatural
选 A. 细节题，容易
27.Visual recognition is believed to be peoples
[A] rapid matching
[B] automatic self-defense
[C] intuitive response
选 C. 细节题，容易
定位在原文第三句：Visual recognition, reads the study, is ”an automatic psychological process, occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation Little couscious 排除 D. 定位信息没有提到 self-defense 无众生有排除 B
定位信息没有提到 self-defense Matching 排除 A.
28.Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to
[A]underestimate their insecurities
[B] believe in their attractiveness
[C] cover up their depressions
[D] oversimplify their illusions
选 B. 容易的细节题,
定位信息在第三句：In fact, those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other markers for having higher self-esteem 句子读不懂看对象，找到定位信息*重要在，第三句： attractiveness 与 self-esteem.选B.
用排除法也可以做对 ACD 三个的对象都无中生有。Insecurity
29.The world viscerally(Line2,Paragraph 5)is closest in meaning to
选 A. 词汇题，难 随缘。
30.It can be inferred Face book is a self-enhancers paradise because people can
[A]present their dishonest profiles
[B] define their traditional lifestyles
[C] share their intellectual pursuits
[D] withholds their unflattering sides
选 D. 细节推论题 ，难，
排除 A .dishonest profiles 与原文相反
排除 B.traditional life styles 无中生有
排除 C.intellecutal pursuits 无中生有
The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and fragile recoveries. And yet, it would be a mistake to think we are right now simply experiencing the painful side of a boom and bust cycle. Certain jobs have gone away for eating up human jobs, this phenomenon will continue to restructure our economy in ways we can’t immediately foresee.
When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened. This argument has attracted a lot of attention, via the success of the book Race Against the Machine, by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, who both hail from MITs Center for Digital Business. Center for Digital Business.
This is a powerful argument, and a scary one. And yet, John Hagel, auther of The power of pull and other books, says Brynjolfsson and McAfee miss the reason why these jobs are so vulnerable to technology in the first place.
Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be “tightly scripted” and “highly standardized” ones that leave no room for “individual initiative or creativity.” In short, these are the types of jobs that machines can perform much better at than human beings. That is how we have put a giant target sign on the backs of American workers, Hagel says.
It’s time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted, since we are still relying on a very 20thcentury notion of work, Hagel says. In our rapidly changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace who can take initiative and exercise their imagination “to respond to unexpected events.” That’s not something machines are good at. They are designed to perform very predictable activities.
As Hagel notes, Brynjolfsson and McAfee indeed touched on this point in their book. We need to reframe race against the machine as race with the machine. In our works, we need to look at the ways in which machines can augment human labor rather than replace it. So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather, “how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?”
31. According to the first paragraph, economic downturns would .
[A] ease the competition of man vs. machine
[B] highlight machines’ threat to human jobs
[C] provoke a painful technological revolution
[D] outmode our current economic structure
选 B . 细节题，定位在第一句话 The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial
revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and fragile recoveries.
对象是 man vs human 答案一定要讲到 machine 与 human jobs 排除 C D.
AB 正好相反， 选 B .
文章说现象在经济衰退和脆弱复苏是更加急剧。 选 B
32. The authors of Race Against the Machine argue that .
[A] technology is diminishing man’s job opportunities
[B] automation is accelerating technological development
[C] certain jobs will remain intact after automation
[D] man will finally win the race against machine
选 A. 细节题， 容易，
答案定位在第一句：When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened.
段落话题是工作与自动化，机器的关系 排除 B D.
A C 方向相反，一定选工作不利的选项选 A.
33. Hagel argues that jobs in the U.S. are often .
[A] performed by innovative minds
[B] scripted with an individual style
[C] standardized without a clear target
[D] designed against human creativity
选 D. 细节题，如果不仔细定位，容易出错，定位在第一句话：
对象是 creativity ，而且与之相悖。
*大干扰项选 C. 错在定位信息没有 clear target 这个对象，
Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be “tightly scripted” and “highly standardized” ones that leave no room for “individual initiative or creativity.”
34. According to the last paragraph, Brynjolfsson and McAfee discussed .
[A] the predictability of machine behavior in practice
[B] the formula for how work is conducted efficiently
[C] the ways machines replace human labor in modern times
[D]the necessity of human involvement in the workplace
选 D. 细节题，用排除法才能做对。 不过正确选项和原文同义改写的不是很好。
定位在*后一句话：So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather, “how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?”,
作者否定了 technology 排除 A ,B
而 C 是 rather than 后面的内容。
35. Which of the following could be the most appropriate title for text?
[A]How to Innovate Our Work Practices
[B]Machines will Replace Human Labor
[C]Can We Win the Race Against Machines
[D]Economic Downturns Stimulate Innovations
选 C . 主旨题，排除法做对，否则很容易做错。
文章主题 machine 排除 A D .
剩下 B C, 排除 B machine 会代替人非文章观点。
When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to jostle for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure projects, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged. This government does not want to see a return to large-scale provision of council housing, so it is naturally wary of measures that will lead us down that route.
Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes. The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. The cap, introduced in 2012 as part of the Housing Revenue Account reform, has been a major issue for the sector. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%. Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new develop pments from revenues.
Finally, they should look at the way in which public sector land is released. Currently up-front payments are required, putting a financial burden on the housing provider. A more positive stimulus would be to encourage a system where the land is made available and maintained as a long-term equity stake in the project.
But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015, is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if it returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to the era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate,This means that affordable housing specialists like Wates living Space have to create a whole new way of working in partnership with registered providers.We have to be prepared to take on more of the risk during the development phase,driving down the cost to deliver high-quality affordable housing and,most importantly,developing alternative funding models to help achieve this.
While the govement’s commitment to long-term funding may have changed,the very pressing need for more affordable housing is real and is not going away.The comprehensive spending review provides the opportunity to start moving us in the right direction stimulating investment in new supply and quickly delivering tangible benefits to local economics.It also helps create the space to develop a long-term sustainable strategy for.
36.The author believes that the housing seetor________.
[A] has attracted much attention
[B] has lost its real value in economy
[C] shoulders too much responsibility
[D]involves certain political factors
选 D . 第二段转折词，But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged 这里用*主要了理由提示房屋建设有政治因素．Ｂ项有明显的干扰，但错误出在 lost its real value 上，文章只提到被忽略，但没提到价值丧失。
37.It can be learned that affordable housing has __________
[A]suffered government biases
[B]increased its home supply
[C]offered spending opportunities
[D]disappionted the government
选 A. 细节题 较难，定位在第四段。
It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
答案一定要有对象 prejudice 偏见 ，只有 A 有偏见
38.According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may ________
[A] prepare to reduce housing stock debt
[B]release a lifted GDP growth forecast
[C]allow greater goverment debt for housing
[D]stop local authorities from building homes
选 C. 细节题，定位在第五段
只有 A,C 对象正确。
第二句：The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt.
这句话里的对象是债务 ， cap 是限额，更灵活的限额，说明，债务可以更多了，这样可以举债
39.It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_____
[A]lower the costs of registered providers
[B]relieve the minister of responsibilities
[C]contribute to funding new developments
[D]lesson the impact of government interference
选 C. 定位在倒数第三段，Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new develop apartments from revenues.
Certainty in rental environment 对应题目中 stable rental environment, 稳定的出租会对那些提供出租房的那方带来很大影响，他们会拿租金开放新的公寓房（fund new develop apartments from revenues）。这对应选项Ｃcontribute to funding new developments（有助于获得开发新项目）
40.The author believes that after 2015,the goverment may______
[A]implement more polices to support housing
[B]stop generous funding to the housing sector
[C]renew the affordable housing grants programme
[D]review the need for large-scale public grants
选 B. 定位在倒数第二段第二行 we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015, is unlikely to be extended beyond then.
到 2015 年，政府对新廉租房的大手笔投入不可能继续下去。The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to the era of large-scale public grants. 重复刚提到的观点，不可能重新回到过去政府大笔投入资金时代, large scale public grants 在正确项换成 generous funding
Read the following text and answer questions by finding information from the right column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the left column .There are two extra chioces in the left column.Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET1 (10points)
Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies,Land Art was one of a range of new forms,including Body Art,Performance Art,Action Art and installation Art,which pushed art beyondthe traditonal confines of the studio and gallery.Rather than portraying landscape,land artists used the physical substance of a land itself as their medium.
The British land artist,typified by Richard Long’s piece,was not only more domestically scaled,but a lot quirkier than its American counterpart,Indeed,while you might assume that an exhibition of Land Art would consist only of records of works rather than the works themselves,Long’s photograph of his work is the work.Since his “action”is in th past the photograph is its sole embodiment.
That might seem rather an obscure point .but it sets the tone for an exhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relatively few natural objects.
Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the from. The Boyle Family, on the other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists Mark Boyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of the British landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterizes most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.
Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard’s very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a prettygirl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.
Generally however British land artists preferred to get away from towns, gravitating toward landscapes that are traditionally considered beautiful such as the Lake District or the Wiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn’t apparent at the time, much of this work is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Words worsh would have readily understood. Derek jarman’s yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.
In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can’t help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this well selected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn’t about imposing on the landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art created passing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results were as gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable.
41. 选 D . 定位在第三段第一句：Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the from.
42. 选 E 这题*难，定位在 Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterizes most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.
粗体部分说明画描述的是*普通的 Most of the time 艺术 ，land art 中* ordinary 的一面
43.选 G.定位在粗体字部分 Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard’s very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a prettygirl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.
44.选 C.定位在 Derek jarman’s yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.
45.选 A. 定位在 A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath.
[A]originates from a long walk that the artist took.
41. stone circle [B] illustrates a kind of landscape-orientated
light conceptual art.
42. Olaf Street Study [C] reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition.
43. Across the Park [D] represents the elegance of the British land art .
44. Towards Avebury [E] Depicts the ordinary side of the British land art .
45. Seven Days [F] embodies a romantic escape into the Scottish outdoors.
[G] Contains images form different parts of the same photograph.
Section III Translation
Most people would define optimism as being endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half full. But that’s exactly the kind of false cheerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimism means being in touch with reality,” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor. According to Ben-Shahar, realistic optimists are those who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.
Ben-Shahar uses three optimistic exercises. When he feels down – say, after giving a bad lecture – he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that not every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction. He analyzes the weak lecture, learning lessons for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the grand scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.
大多数人会将乐观定义为无尽的欢乐，就像一只总是装着半杯水的杯子。但那是一种绝不会为积极的心理学家所提倡的虚假的快乐。哈佛大学的 Tal Ben-Shahar 教授说，“健康的乐观主义意味着要处于现实之中。”在 Ben-Shahar 看来，现实的乐观主义者会享受既定事实，而非事事求全。
Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him an email to
1) tell him about your living habits, and
2) ask for advice about living there.
I am very pleased to be informed by the school administrater that I will share an apartment with you. It feels so nice to live with a local student. I will develop my English fluency quickly with your help.
I come from China and like most young people in our country, I don’t smoke but I drink a little beer at times. I have the habit of going to bed quite early and get up early, because as the saying goes, “Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise”.
I have little idea about your city. So would you please give me some advice on what I need to take for living there?
I am looking forward to your response with anticipations.
Best wishes, Li Ming
Write an essay based on the following chart.In your essay, you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
Urbanization in China
China was a country of farmers, but this situation has been changing steadily over the past 20 years.
In 1990, the proportion of farmers to city residents was 830 million to 300 million. But 10 years later, the proportion changed to be 800 million to 450 million. In 2010, the number of farmers was only about 10 million larger than that of city residents. How should we interpret this urbanization?
This change has interesting implications. For one thing, as economy develops, the central
government has been attaching greater importance to farmers’ interest. The ongoing urbanization brings more people to towns and cities. Such people are thus entitled to higher quality of life that theyhave never dreamed of. For another, the high mobility of people makes our society more dynamic, and also creates greater demands for infrastructure in cities like school and hospitals.
Meanwhile, we shouldn’t turn a blind eye to the challenges that this urbanization brings about. For example, social security is becoming a compelling problem. So the government should take our social tradition, people’s literacy level and welfare system into account in promoting the process. Only then can urbanization truly benefit more people in our country. (198 words)