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2014年管理类联考真题及详解
2019-01-15
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同研数学名师孙华明解析

  全国联考数学辅导专家、“秒杀之父” 

一、问题求解:第1-15小题 每小题 3分,共45分。下列每题给出的A、B、C、D、E五个选项中,只有一项是符合试题要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑.

 

1. 某部门在一次联欢会活动中共设了26个奖,奖品均价为280元,其中一等奖单价为400元,其它奖品均价为270元,一等奖的个数为  (E)

 

(A)6     (B)5      (C)4

(D)3     (E)2

                                             


2.某单位进行办公室装修,若甲、乙两个装修公司合做,需10周完成,工 费为100万元;甲公司单独做6周后由乙公司接着做18周完成,工时费为96万元。甲公司每周的工时费为    (B)

(A) 7.5万元     (B) 7万元    (C) 6.5万

(D) 6万元       (E) 5.5万元


3. 如图1,已知AE=3AB,  BF=2BC。若△ABC的面积是2,

  则△AEF的面积为  (B)

 


(A)14     (B)12   (C)10     (D)8    (E)6                                                                                                             


4.已知{ɑn}为等差数列,且ɑ258=9,则ɑ12+…+ɑ9=   (D)

 

 (A) 27       (B) 45     (C) 54       (D) 81    (E) 162


5.如图2,圆A与圆B的半径均为1,则阴影部分的面积为  (E)

 


6.甲、乙两人上午8:00分别自A,B出发相向而行,9:00第一次相遇,之后速度均提高了1.5公里/小时,甲到B,乙到A后都立刻沿原路返回,若两人在10:30第二次相遇,则A,B两地的距离为  (D)

 

(A) 5.6公里  (B) 7公里  (C) 8公里    (D) 9公里     (E) 9.5公里

7.某公司投资一个项目。已知上半年完成了预算的

,下半年完成了剩余的部分的

,此时还有8千万元投资为完成,则该项目的预算为   (B)

 

 (A) 3亿元    (B)  3.6亿元   (C) 3.9亿元    (D) 4.5亿元    (E)  5.1亿元


8.某容器中装满了浓度为90%的酒精,倒出一升后用水将容器注满,搅拌均匀后又倒出一升,再用水将容器注满。已知此时的酒精浓度为40%,则该容器的容积是(B)

 

(A) 2.5升       (B) 3升      (C) 3.5升   (D) 4升         (E) 4.5升


9.已知直线L是圆  x²+y²=5在点(1, 2)处的切线,则L在y轴上的截距为( D )


10.在某项活动中,将3男3女6名志愿者随机地分成甲、乙、丙三组,每组两人,则每组志愿者都是异性的概率为    ( E )

 

11.某工厂在半径为5cm的球形工艺品上镀一层装饰金属,厚度为0.01cm。已知装饰金属的原材料是棱长为20cm的正方体钉子,则加工10000个该工艺品需要的锭子数量少为(不考虑加工损耗,)(C)

  (A) 2       (B) 3      (C) 4      (D) 5          (E) 20

 

12.如图3,正方体ABCD-A’B’C’D’的棱长为2,F是棱C’D’的中点,则AF的长为  ( A )


13.某单位决定对4个部门的经理进行轮岗,要求每位经理必须轮换到4个部门中的其他部门任职,这不同的轮岗方案有:  (D)

 

  (A) 3种        (B) 6种      (C) 8种      (D) 9种        (E) 10种


14.掷一枚均匀的硬币若干次,当正面向上次数大于反面向上次数时停止,则在4次之内停止的概率为( C )

 


15.若几个质数(系数)的乘积为770,则它们的和为   (E)

 

 (A) 85           (B) 84        (C) 28     (D) 26           (E) 25


二、条件充分性判断:第16-25小题,每小题3分,共30分。要求判断每题给出得条件(1)和(2)能否充分支持提干所陈述的结论。ABCDE五个选项为判断结果,请选择一项符合试题要求得判断,在答题卡上将所选项得字母涂黑。

(A)条件(1)充分,但条件(2)不充分

(B)条件(2)充分,但条件(1)不充分

(C)条件(1)和条件(2)单独都不充分,但条件(1)和条件(2)联合起来充分

(D)条件(1)充分,条件(2)也充分

(E)条件(1)和条件(2)单独都不充分,条件(1)和条件(2)联合起来也不充分

 

16.甲、乙、丙三人的年龄相同。  ( C )

  

  (1) 甲、乙、丙的年龄成等差数列。

 

  (2) 甲、乙、丙的年龄成等比数列。

17. 设X是非零实数。x3+   =18则   ( A )  

   


18.已知曲线l:y=a+bx-6x²+x²,则(a+b-5)(a-b-5)=0  ( A )

 

  (1)曲线l过点(1,0)     (2)曲线l过点(-1,0)


19.不等式∣x2+2x+a∣≤1的解集为空集, ( B )

 

  (1)a﹤0       (2)a﹥2


20. 如图4,0是半圆的圆心,C是半圆上的一点,0D⊥AC,则能确定0D的长。( A )

   (1)已知BC的长    (2)已知A0的长

 

 

21.已知袋中有红、黑、白三种颜色的球若干个,则红球*多。  ( C )


   (1)随机取出的一球是白球的概率为

   (2)随机取出的两球中至少有一个黑球的概率小于


22.已知M={a,b,c,d,e}是一个整数集合,则能确定集合M。  ( C )

 

  (1)a,b,c,d,e的平均值为10.     (2)a,b,c,d,e的方差为2.


23. 方程 x²+2(a+b)x+c²=0有实根。 ( D )

 

   (1)a,b,c是一个三角形的边长。        (2)实数a,b,c成等差数列。

 

24.已知x,y为实数,则x²+y²≥1.   ( A )

 

   (1)4y-3x≥5..        (2)(x-1)²+(y-1)²≥5.


25.已知二次函数 ƒ(x)= ax²+bx+c,则能确定a,b,c的值。 ( C )

 

(1)曲线y=ƒ(x)经过点(0,0)和点(1,1)        (2)曲线y=ƒ(x)与直线y=a+b相切


同研逻辑名师孙勇(机工版教材主编)解析 

 

三、逻辑推理:第26-55小题,每小题2分,共60分。下列每题给出的A、B、C、D、E五个选项中,只有一项是符合试题要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。

26.随着光钎网络带来的网速大幅度提高,高速下载电影、在线看大片等都不再是困扰我们的问题。即使在社会生产力发展水平较低的国家,人们也可以通过网络随时随地获得*快的信息、*贴心的服务和*佳体验。有专家据此认为:光钎网络将大幅提高人民的生活质量。

以下哪项如果为真,*能质疑该专家的观点?

A.网络上获得的贴心服务和美妙体验有时是虚幻的

B.即使没有光钎网络,同样可以创造高品质的生活

C.随着高速网络的普及,相关上网费用也随之增加

D.人民生活质量的提高仅决定于社会生产力的发展水平

E.快捷的网络服务可能使人们将大量时间消耗在娱乐上

该选项说明人民生活质量与光纤网络无关,并且由于生活质量仅决定于社会生产力的发展水平,所以生产力较低的国家不可能生活质量高,所以D选项对专家的观点提出质疑。

 

27.李栋善于辩论,也喜欢论辩。又一次他论证道:“郑强知道数字87654321,陈梅家的电话正好是87654321,所以郑强知道陈梅家的电话号码。”

以下哪项与李栋论证中所犯的错误*为类似?

A.中国人是勤劳勇敢的,李岚是中国人,所以李岚是勤劳勇敢的

B.金砖是由原子构成的,原子不是肉眼可见的,所以金砖不是肉眼可见的

C.黄兵相信晨星在早晨出现,而晨星其实就是暮星,所以黄兵相信暮星在早晨出现

D.张冉知道如果1:0的比分保持到终场,他们的队伍就出线了,现在张冉听到了终场比赛结束的哨声,所以张冉知道他们的队伍出线了

E.所有蚂蚁都是动物,所以所有大蚂蚁都是大动物

题干李栋辩论的逻辑错误在于知道“A”和知道“A是B”是两种不同的涵义,类似的错误出现在C选项中。E不正确,该选项所犯的错误属于偷换概念。

 

28.陈先生在鼓励他的孩子时说道:“不要害怕暂时的困难和挫折。不经历风雨怎么见彩虹?”他孩子不服气的说:“您说得不对。我经历了那么多风雨,怎么就没见到彩虹呢?”

陈先生孩子的回答*适宜用来反驳以下哪项?

A.如果想见到彩虹,就必须经历风雨

B.只要经历了风雨,就可以见到彩虹

C.只有经历风雨,才能见到彩虹

D.即使经历了风雨,也可能见不到彩虹

E.即使见到了彩虹,也不是因为经历了风雨

陈先生的观点是“见风雨是见彩虹的必要条件”,而他孩子误以为是充分条件了,所以小孩子的反驳是针对充分条件的反驳,即B选项。

 

29.在某次考试中,有3个关于北京旅游景点的问题,要求考生每题选择某个景点的名字作为**答案。其中6位考生关于上述3个问题的答案依次如下:

第一位考生:天坛、天坛、天安门;

第二位考生:天安门、天安门、天坛;

第三位考生:故宫、故宫、天坛;

第四位考生:天坛、天安门、故宫;

第五位考生:天安门、故宫、天安门;

第六位考生:故宫、天安门、故宫;

考试结果表明,每位考生都至少答对其中1道题。

根据以上陈述,可知这三个问题的正确答案依次是:

A.天坛、故宫、天坛

B.故宫、天安门、天安门

C.天安门、故宫、天坛

D.天坛、天坛、故宫

E.故宫、故宫、天坛

由于选项是穷尽式选项,所以根据每位考生至少答对其中一题,将条件向下带入验证五个选项,第一位学生至少一对排除C、E;第二位学生至少一对排除D,第六位学生至少一对排除A,故答案选B。

 

30.人们普遍认为适量的体育运动能够有效降低中风的发生率,但科学家还注意到有些化学物质也有降低中风风险的作用。番茄红素是一种让番茄、辣椒、西瓜和番木瓜等果蔬呈现红色的化学物质。研究人员选取一千余名年龄在46至55岁之间的人,进行了长达12年的追踪调查,发现其中番茄红素水平*高的四分之一的人中有11人中风;番茄红素水平*低的四分之一的人中有25人中风。他们由此得出结论:番茄红素能降低中风发生率。

以下哪一项如果为真,*能对上述研究结论提出质疑?

A.被研究的另一半人中有50人中风

B.番茄红素水平较低的中风者中有三分之一的人病情较轻

C.如果调查56至65岁之间的人,情况也许不同

D.番茄红素水平高得的人约有四分之一喜爱进行适量的体育运动

E.吸烟、高血压和糖尿病等会诱发中风

题干对番茄红素*高和*低的1/4的人进行比较,发现中风人数明显差别,于是将番茄红素作为防止中风的原因。D选项是他因削弱,说明是运动使其降低中风。A的选项的问题是即使另一半人不是*高和*低的番茄红素水平,但这些人的番茄红素是高还是低不明确。

 

31.*新研究发现,恐龙腿骨化石都有一定的弯曲度,这意味着恐龙其实并没有人们想象的那么重。以前根据其腿骨为圆柱形的假定计算动物体重时,会使得计算结果比实际体重高出1.42倍。科学家由此认为,过去的那种计算方式高估了恐龙腿部所能承受的*大身体重量。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持以上科学家的观点?

A.恐龙腿骨所能承受的重量比之前人们所认为的要大

B.恐龙身体越重,其腿部骨骼也越粗壮

C.圆柱形腿骨能承受的重量比弯曲的腿骨大

D.恐龙腿部的肌肉对于支撑其体重作用不大

E.与陆地的恐龙相比,翼龙的腿骨更接近圆柱形

题干根据“恐龙腿骨是弯曲的还是圆柱形的”来推测“恐龙的体重是轻或者重”,显然要在“弯曲、圆柱形的区别”和“重量区别”之间建立联系,C选项是这种联系,既是论证的假设也是加强。

 

32.已知某班共有25位同学,女生中身高*高者与*矮者相差10厘米;男生中身高*高者与*矮者则相差15厘米。小明认为,根据已知信息,只要再知道男生、女生*高者的具体身高,或者再知道男生、女生的平均身高,均可确定全国学生中身高*高者与*低者之间的差距。

以下哪项如果为真,*能构成对小明观点的反驳?

A.根据已知信息,如果不能确定全国同学中身高*高者与*低者之间的差距,则也不能确定男生、女生*高者的具体身高

B.根据已知信息,即使确定了全国同学中身高*高者与*低者之间的差距,也不能确定男生、女生的平均身高

C.根据已知信息,如果不能确定全国同学中身高*高者与*低者之间的差距,则既不能确定男生、女生*高者的具体身高,也不能确定男生、女生的平均身高

D.根据已知信息,尽管再知道男生、女生的平均身高,也不能确定全班同学中身高*高者与*低者之间的差距

E.根据已知信息,仅仅再知道男生、女生*高者的具体身高,就能确定全班同学中身高*高者与*低者之间的差距

小明的观点认为,只要知道两个条件(男女生*高者的具体身高或者男女生平均身高)之一,就能够确定“所有学生*高和*低者之间的差距”,但根据数学关系可知,如果仅仅知道男女平均身高,是无法确定该结果的,所以D选项指出其漏洞,从而构成对小明的有效反驳。

 

33.近.年来,某电脑公司的个人笔记本电脑的销量持续增长,但其增长率低于该公司所有产品总销量的增长率。

以下哪项关于该公司的陈述与上述信息相冲突?

A.近10年来,该公司个人笔记本电脑的销量每年略有增长

B.个人笔记本电脑的销量占该公司产品总销量的比例近几年来由68%上升到72%

C.近10年来,该公司产品总销量增长率与个人笔记本电脑的销量增长率每年同时增长

D.近10年来,该公司个人笔记本电脑的销量占该公司产品总销量的比例逐年下降

E.个人笔记本电脑的销量占该公司产品总销量的比例近10年来由64%下降到49%

个人笔记本电脑销量持续增长,但增长率比其他产品的增长率都低,说明个人笔记本电脑的销量占该公司所有产品总销量的比重降低,所以B选项与题干信息是冲突的。

 

34.学者张某说:“问题本身并不神秘,因与果也不仅仅是哲学家的事。每个凡夫俗子一生中都将面临许多问题,但分析问题的方法技巧却很少有人掌握,无怪乎华尔街的分析大师们趾高气扬,身价百倍”。

以下哪项如果为真,*能反驳张某的观点?

A.有些凡夫俗子可能不需要掌握分析问题的方法和技巧

B.有些凡夫俗子将要面临的问题并不多

C.凡夫俗子中很少有人掌握分析问题的方法和技巧

D.掌握分析问题的方法和技巧对多数人来说很重要

E.华尔街的大师们大都掌握分析问题的方法和技巧

张某的观点是“因为每个人包括凡夫俗子都会面临很多问题,而解决问题的方法只有少数人能够掌握,所以这些少数人就很有价值”。B选项与“每个凡夫俗子都将面临许多问题”矛盾,所以能够反驳。张某观点中没有“所有人都需要掌握分析问题的方法和技巧”,所以A选项与论证无关。

 

35.试验发现,孕妇适当补充维生素D可以降低新生儿感染呼吸道合胞病毒的风险。科研人员检测了156名新生儿脐带血中维生素D的含量,其中54%的新生儿被诊断为维生素D缺失,这当中有12%的孩子在出生后一年内感染了呼吸道合胞病毒,这一比例远高于维生素D正常的孩子。

以下哪项如果为真,*能对科研人员的上述发现提供支持?

A.上述实验中,54%的新生儿维生素D缺失是由于他们的母亲在妊娠期间没有补充足够的维生素D造成的

B.孕妇适当补充维生素D可降低新生儿感染流感病毒的风险,特别是在妊娠后期补充维生素D预防效果会更好

C.上述实验中,46%补充维生素D的孕妇所生的新生儿也有一些在出生一年内感染呼吸道合胞病毒

D.科研人员试验时所选的新生儿在其他方面跟一般新生儿的相似性没有得到明确验证

E.维生素D具有多种防病健体功能,其中包括提高免疫系统功能,促进新生儿呼吸系统发育,预防新生儿呼吸道病毒感染等

题干的论证仅仅说明,新生儿缺乏维生素D易于感染合胞病毒,但没有说明孕妇对于新生儿缺乏维生素D有什么影响。A选项加强了孕妇补充维生素D的作用。注意B是流感病毒与题干所述合胞病毒无关。

 

36.英国有家小酒馆采取客人吃饭付费“随便给”的做法,即让顾客享用葡萄酒,蟹柳及三文鱼等美食后,自己决定付账金额。大多数顾客均以公平成慷慨的态度结账,实际金额比那些酒水菜肴本来的价格高出20%。该酒馆老板另有4家酒馆,而这4家酒馆每周的利润与付账“随便给”的酒馆相比少5%。这位老板因此认为:“随便给”的营销策略很成功。

以下哪项如果为真,*能解释老板营销策略的成功?

A.部分顾客希望自己看上去有教养,愿意掏足够甚至更多的钱

B.如果顾客所付低于成本价格,就会收到提醒而补足差价

C.另外4家酒馆位置不如这家“随便给”酒馆

D.客人常常不知道酒水菜肴的实际价格,不知道该付多少钱

E.对于过分吝啬的顾客,酒馆老板常常也无可奈何

要解释“随便给”营销策略成功,即顾客自己决定付账金额时,大的户数顾客均以公平而慷慨的态度结账,于是利润高。A选项解释了为什么顾客会这样做。所以答案选A。B选项与“随便给”营销策略冲突;C选项与“随便给”营销策略无关,D选项说明顾客不知道给多少钱,但不能以此认为就是多给了钱。E不仅不能解释,反而说明该营销策略会亏本。

 

37—38题基于以下题干

某公司年度审计期间,审计人员发现一张发票,上面有赵义、钱仁礼、孙智、李信4个签名,签名者的身份各不相同,是经办人,复核,出纳或审批领导之中的一个,且每个签名都是本人所签。询问4位相关人员,得到以下回答:

赵  义:“审批领导的签名不是钱仁礼。”

钱仁礼:“复核的签名不是李信。”

孙  智:“出纳的签名不是赵义。”

李  信:“复核的签名不是钱仁礼。”

已知上述每个回答中,如果提到的人是经办人,则该回答为假,如果提到的人不是经办人,则为真。

37,根据以上信息,可以得出经办人是:

A.赵义

B.钱仁礼

C.孙智

D.李信

E.无法确定

注意试题已知的是“提到的人是经办人,则该回答为假;否则为真”。题干中提到的钱、李、赵都不是经办人,因为如果他们是经办人,则涉及到的命题为假,这就意味着钱是审批领导和复核、李是复核,赵是出纳。这都不合题意。所以,经办人只能是孙。这样钱是出纳;这样李是审批领导;赵是复核。故答案选C。

 

38.根据以上信息,该公司的复核和出纳分别是:

A.李信、赵义

B.孙智、赵义

C. 钱仁礼、李信

D.赵义、钱仁礼

E.孙智、李信

上一问的解题,已经可以使本题答案确定为D了。


39.长期以来,人们认为地球是已知**能支持生命存在的星球,不过这一情况开始出现改观。科学家近日指出,在其他恒星周围,可能还存在着更加宜居的行星,他们尝试用新的方法展开外生命探索,即收集放射性元素钍和铀,行星内部含有这些元素越多,其内部温度就越高,在一定程度上有助于行星的板块运动,而板块运动有助于维系行星表面的水体,因此——

以下哪项*可能为科学家的假设?

A. 虽尚未证实,但地球外生命一定存在

B. 没有水的行星也可能有生命

C. 行星内部温度越高,越有助于板块运动

D. 行星板块运动都是由放射性元素钍和铀驱动的

E. 行星如能维系水体就可能存在生命

科学家论点是“存在更加宜居的行星”,而论据证明的是“其他行星表面有水体”。从论据到论点之间的联系就是论证的假设,所以E选项是答案。

 

40.为了加强学习型机关建设,某机关党委开展了菜单式学习活动,拟开设课程有“行政学”、“管理学”、“科学前沿”、“逻辑”和“国际政治”等五门课程,要求其下属的四个支部各选择其中的两门课程进行学习。已知:第一支部没有选择“管理学”、“逻辑”,第二支部没有选择“行政学”、“国际政治”,只有第三支部选择了“科学前沿”,任意两个支部所选课程均不完全相同。

根据上述信息,关于第四支部的选课情况可以得出以下哪项?

A. 如果没有选择“行政学”,那么选择了“逻辑”

B. 如果没有选择“管理学”,那么选择了“逻辑”

C. 如果没有选择“国际政治”,那么选择了“逻辑”

D. 如果没有选择“管理学”,那么选择了“国际政治”

E. 如果没有选择“行政学”,那么选择了“管理学”

由于只有第三支部选择“科学前沿”,所以,第四支部一定在剩下四门课中进行选择。而每一个支部选择的都不完全相同,所以,第四支部在“管理”和“逻辑”之间必须至少选一门,在“行政学”和“国际政治之间”必须选一门,否则就与前两个支部完全相同了。由于B选项等价于“或者选管理学或者选逻辑”,所以答案选B。

 

41.有气象专家指出:全球变暖已经成为人类发展*严重的问题之一,南北极地区的冰川由于全球变暖而加速融化,已导致海平面上升;如果这一趋势不变,今后势必淹没很多地区,但近几年来,北半球许多地区的民众在冬季感到相当寒冷,一些地区甚至出现了超强降雪和降低气温,人们觉得对近期气候的确切描述似乎更应该是“全球变冷”。

以下哪项如果为真,*能解释上述现象?

A.除了南极洲,南半球近几年冬季的平均温度接近正常

B.近几年来,由于南极附近海温度升高导致原来洋流中断或者减弱,而北半球经历严寒冬季的地区正是原来暖流影响的主要环境

C.北半球主要是大陆性气候,冬季和夏季的温差通常较大,近年来冬季极地寒流比较频繁,近几年来,全球夏季的平均气温比常年偏高

D.近几年来,由于赤道附近海水温度升高导致了原来洋流增强,而北半球经历严寒冬季的地区是原来是寒流影响的主要区域

E.北半球主要是大陆性气候,冬季和夏季的温差通常比较大,近年来冬季极地寒流南侵比较频繁

要解释的是为什么全球变暖的情况下,北半球的冬天却更加冷。B说明温度上升导致暖流中断使北半球冬天变冷。C选项没有对北半球冬天更冷做出合理解释,所以属于无关选项。

 

42.这两个《通知》或者属于规章或者属于规范性文件,任何人均无权依据这两个《通知》将本来属于当事人选择公证的事项规定为强制公证的事项。

根据以上信息,可以得出以下哪项?

A.规章或者规范性文件既不是法律,也不是行政法规

B.规章或规范性文件或者不是法律,或者不是行政法规

C. 这两个《通知》如果一个属于规章,那么另一个属于规范性文件

D.这两个《通知》如果都不属于规范性文件,那么就属于规章

E. 将本来属于当事人选择公证的事情规定为强制公证的事项属于违法行为

或者规章或者规范性文件;等价于“如果不是规范性文件,那么就是规章”,所以答案选D。

 

43.若一个管理者是某领域优秀的专家学者,则他一定会管理好公司的基本事物;一位品行端正的管理者可以得到下属的尊重;但是对所有领域都一知半解的人一定不会得到下属的尊重。浩瀚公司董事会只会解除那些没有管理好公司基本事物者的职务。

根据以上信息,你可以得出以下哪选项?

A.浩瀚公司董事会不可能解除品行端正的管理者的职务

B.浩瀚公司董事会解除了某些管理者的职务

C.浩瀚公司董事会不可能解除受下属尊重的管理者的职务

D.作为某领域优秀专家的管理者,不可能被浩瀚公司董事会解除职务

E.对所有领域都一知半解的管理者,一定会被浩瀚公司董事会解除职务

根据题干已知第一句,可知“作为某领域优秀的专家,一定会管理好公司的事物”,而根据已知*后一句,可知“作为某领域优秀专家的管理者,就不会被浩瀚公司董事会解除职务”。所以答案选D。

 

44.某国大选在即,国际政治专家陈研究员预测,选举结果或者是甲党控制政府,或者是乙党控制政府。如果甲党赢得对政府的控制权,该国将出现经济问题;如果乙党赢得对政府的控制权,该国将陷入军事危机。

根据陈研究员上述预测,可以得出以下哪项?

A.该国可能不会出现经济问题,也不会陷入军事危机

B.如果该国出现经济问题,那么甲党赢得了对政府的控制权

C.该国将出现经济问题,或者将陷入军事危机

D.如果该国陷入了军事危机,那么乙党赢得了堆政府的控制权

E.如果该国出现了经济问题并且陷入了军事危机,那么甲党与乙党均赢得了对政府的控制权

或者甲党控制或者乙党控制政府,甲党控制则出现经济问题,乙党控制则陷入军事危机。所以;该国或者出现经济问题,或者陷入军事危机,即答案选C。

 

45.某大学顾老师在回答有关招生问题时强调:“我们学校招收一部分免费师范生,也招收一部分一般师范生。一般师范生不同于免费师范生,没有免费师范生毕业时可以留在大城市工作,而一般师范生毕业时都可以选择留在大城市工作,任何非免费师范生毕业时都需要自谋职业,没有免费师范生毕业时需要自谋职业。”

根据顾老师的陈述,可以得出以下哪项?

A. 该校需要自谋职业的大学生都可以选择留在大城市工作

B.不是一般师范生的该校大学生都是免费师范生

C.该校需要自谋职业的大学生都是一般师范生

D.该校所有一般师范生都需要自谋职业

E. 该校可以选择留在大城市工作的**一类毕业生是一般师范生

由题干可知“一般师范生肯定不是免费师范生”;而“所有非免费师范生都需要自谋职业”,答案选D。注意,由于该学校不仅仅只有免费师范生和一般师范生,所以这两个概念不矛盾,即不是一般师范生未必是免费师范生。

 

46.某单位负责网络、文秘以及后勤的三名办公人员:文珊、孔瑞和姚薇,为了培养年轻干部,领导决定她们三人在这三个岗位之间实行轮岗,并将她们原来的工作间110室、111室和112室也进行了轮换。结果,原本负责后勤的文珊接替了孔瑞的文秘工作。由110室调到了111室。

根据以上信息,可以得出以下哪项?

A.姚薇接替孔瑞的工作

B.孔瑞接替文珊的工作

C.孔瑞被调到了110室

D.孔瑞被调到了112室

E.姚薇被调到了112室

由于是轮岗并且办公室也轮换。所以,由题干可知:文珊接孔瑞的工作;孔瑞接姚薇的工作;姚薇接文珊的工作。而办公室则是文珊由110调111,孔瑞从111调112;姚薇从112调110。所以答案选D。

 

47.某小区业主委员会的4名成员晨桦、建国、向明和嘉媛围坐在一张方桌前(每边各坐一人)讨论小区大门旁的绿化方案。4人的职业各不相同,每个人的职业是高校教师、软件工程师、园艺师或邮递员中的一种。已知:晨桦是软件工程师,他坐在建国的左手边,向明坐在高校教师的右手边,坐在建国对面的嘉媛不是邮递员。

根据以上信息,可以得出以下哪项?

A.嘉媛是高校教师,向明是园艺师

B.向明是邮递员,嘉媛是园艺师

C.建国是邮递员,嘉媛是园艺师

D.建国是高校教师,向明是园艺师

E.嘉媛是园艺师,向明是高校教师


B.作图。由于建国出现两次,所以,按照建国来定位,确定在建国右手边是向明;所以,建国是高校教师,建国高校教师;嘉园艺师;向明邮递员。图中数字表示推理步骤。

 

48.兰教授认为:不善于思考的人不可能成为一名优秀的管理者,没有一个谦逊的智者学习占星术,占星家均学习占星术,但是有些占星家确是优秀的管理者。

以下哪项如果为真,*能反驳兰教授的上述观点?

A.有些占星家不是优秀的管理者

B.有些善于思考的人不是谦逊的智者

C.所有谦逊的智者都是善于思考的人

D.谦逊的智者都不是善于思考的人

E.善于思考的人都是谦逊的智者

 首先考虑CDE三个全称命题选项都是关于“谦逊的智者”与“善于思考的人”之间的关系。将题干第一句的逆否命题(“优秀管理者是善于思考的人”)与E选项结合,可以推知“优秀管理者都是谦虚的智者”,这样他们都不学习占星术,所以他们都不是占星家,这就与“有些占星家是优秀管理者”矛盾。所以答案选E。

 

49.不仅人上了年纪会难以集中注意力,就连蜘蛛也有类似的状况。年轻蜘蛛的网整齐均匀,角度**;年老蜘蛛的网可能出现缺口,形状怪异。蜘蛛越老,结的网就越没有章法。科学家由此认为,随着时间的流逝,这种动物的大脑会像人脑一样退化。

以下哪项如果为真,*能质疑科学家的上述论证?

A.优美的蛛网更容易受到异性蜘蛛的青睐

B.年老蜘蛛的大脑较之年轻蜘蛛,其脑容量明显偏小

C.运动器官的老化会导致年老蜘蛛结网能力下降

D.蜘蛛结网只是一种本能的行为,并不受大脑控制

E.形状怪异的蛛网较之整齐均匀的蛛网,其功能没有大的差别

题干认为“老年蜘蛛结的网破是由于老年蜘蛛大脑退化了”,C选项推出老年蜘蛛结网破的其他原因,属于他因削弱。注意,D选项只是说明结网是本能行为,但没有说明结网的好坏问题。

 

50.某研究中心通过实验对健康男性和女性听觉的空间定位能力进行了研究。起初,每次只发出一种声音,要求被试者说出声源的准确位置,男性和女性都非常轻松的完成了任务;后来多种声音同时发出,要求被试者只关注一种声音并对声源进行定位,与男性相比,女性完成这项任务要困难的多,有时她们甚至认为声音是从声源相反方向传来的。研究人员由此得出:在嘈杂环境中准确找出声音来源的能力,男性要胜过女性。

以下哪项如果为真,*能支持研究者的结论?

A.在实验使用的嘈杂环境中,有些声音是女性熟悉的声音

B.在实验使用的嘈杂环境中,有些声音是男性不熟悉的声音

C.在安静的环境中,女性注意力更易集中

D.在嘈杂的环境中,男性注意力更易集中

E.在安静的环境中,人的注意力更容易分散;在嘈杂的环境中,人的注意力更容易集中

嘈杂环境中,注意力更集中,解释了男性之所以在嘈杂环境中男性比女性辨别声音来源的能力强的原因。所以D是加强。其他选项中A、B选项属于一类,由于“是否熟悉声音”与“辨别生源无关”所以两个选项属于无关选项;C选项是安静环境中,与吵杂环境的论证没有关系。E选项没有解释男女是否存在差别,所以不如D选项。

 

51. 孙先生的所有朋友都声称,他们知道某人每天抽烟至少两盒,而且持续了40年,但身体一直不错,不过可以确信的是,孙先生并不知道有这样的人,在他的朋友中也有像孙先生这样不知情的。

根据以上信息,可以得出以下哪项?

A.抽烟多少和身体健康与否无直接关系

B.朋友之间的交流可能会夸张,但没有人想故意说谎

C.孙先生的每位朋友知道的烟民一定不是同一个人

D.孙先生的朋友中有人没有说真话

E.孙先生的大多数朋友没有说真话

“所有朋友声称的知道某事”但事实上“他的朋友中也有像她这样不知情的”,所以,答案选D。

 

52.现有甲、乙两所高校,根据上年度的教育经费实际投入统计,若仅仅比较在校本科生的学生人均投入经费,甲校等于乙校的86%;但若比较所有学生(本科生加上研究生)的人均经费投入,甲校是乙校的118%。各校研究生的人均经费投入均高于本科生。

根据以上信息,*可能得出以下哪项?

A.上年度,甲校学生总数多于乙校

B.上年度,甲校研究生人数少于乙校

C.上年度,甲校研究生占该校学生的比例高于乙校

D.上年度,甲校研究生人均经费投入高于乙校

E.上年度,甲校研究生占该校学生的比例高于乙校,或者甲校研究生人均经费投入高于乙校

将(本科生人均经费×本科生人数)+(研究生人均经费×研究生人数)除以学生总人数(本科生+研究生)得到所有学生的人均经费投入。由研究生人均经费大于本科生人均经费。已知是本科生人均经费甲校低于乙校;但所有学生人均却甲校高于乙校。根据公式可以确定或者是甲校的研究生人均经费高于乙校;或者是甲校的研究生人数所占比例比乙校高。即E选项。

 

53—54题基于以下题干

孔智、孟睿、荀慧、庄聪、墨灵、韩敏等6人组成一个代表队参加某次棋类大赛。其中两人参加围棋比赛,两人参加中国象棋比赛,还有两人参加国际象棋比赛。有关他们具体擦家比赛项目的情况还需满足以下条件:

(1)每位选手只能参加一个比赛项目;

(2)孔智参加围棋比赛,当且仅当,庄聪和孟睿都参加中国象棋比赛

(3)如果韩敏不参加国际象棋比赛,那么墨灵参加中国象棋比赛;

(4)如果荀慧参加中国象棋比赛,那么庄聪不参加中国象棋比赛;

(5)荀慧和墨灵至少有一人不参加中国象棋比赛。

53. 如果荀慧参加中国象棋比赛,那么可以得出以下哪项?

A.庄聪和墨灵都参加围棋比赛

B.孟睿参加围棋比赛

C.孟睿参加国际象棋比赛

D.墨灵参加国际象棋比赛

E.韩敏参加国际象棋比赛

从荀睿参加中国象棋,由(5)可知墨灵不参加中国象棋,再由(3)可知韩敏参加国际象棋,故答案选E。

 

54.如果庄聪和孔智参加相同的比赛项目,且孟睿参加中国象棋比赛,么可以得出以下哪项?

A墨灵参加国际象棋比赛

B庄聪参加中国象棋比赛

C孔智参加围棋比赛

D荀慧参加围棋比赛

E韩敏参加中国象棋比赛

庄聪和孔智参加项目相同,由(1)可知孔智不参加围棋;再由(4)可知,庄聪不参加中国象棋;所以所以他们共同参加国际象棋。所以,韩敏不参加国际象棋,再由(3)可知墨灵参加中国象棋,再由(5)可知荀慧参加围棋。即答案选D。

 

55.根据题干信息,以下哪项可能为真?

A.庄聪和韩敏参加中国象棋比赛

B.韩敏和荀慧参加中国象棋比赛

C.孔智和孟睿参加围棋比赛

D.墨灵和孟睿参加围棋比赛

E.韩敏和孔智参加围棋比赛

直接带入验证。A庄聪和韩敏参加中国象棋,由(3)可知墨灵也参加中国象棋,参加中国象棋一共有三人,不合题意;B类似也是三人参加中国象棋;C选项孔智参加围棋,由(1)可知孟睿参加中国象棋,不可能也参加围棋;E中孔智参加围棋,由(1)可知庄聪和孟睿都参加中国象棋比赛;而韩敏参加围棋,不参加国际象棋,由(3)可知,墨灵也参加中国象棋,也是三人参加中国象棋,不合题意。故答案只有D。

 

四、写作:第56-57小题,共65分。其中论证有效性分析30分,论说文35分。请写在答题纸指定位置上。

56.论证有效性分析:分析下述论证中存在的缺陷和漏洞。选择若干要点,写一篇 600 字左右的文章,对该论证的有效性进行分析和评(论证有效性分析的一般要点是:概 特别是核心概念的界定和使用是否准确并前后一致有无各种明显的逻辑错误论证的论 是否成立并支持结论,结论成立的条件是否充分等等

现代企业管理制度的设计所要遵循的重要原则是权力制衡与监督。只要有了制衡与监 督,企业的成功就有了保证。

所谓制衡,指对企业的管理权进行分解,然后使被分解的权力相互制约以达到平衡可以使任何人不能滥用权力至于监督指对企业管理进行严密观察使企业运营的各个节处于可控范围之内而且所有环节都在可控范围之内那么企业的经营就不可能产生失误 

同时以制衡与监督为原则所设计的企业管理制度还有一个固有特点,即能保证其实施者 的有效性.因为环环相扣的监督机制能确保企业内部各级管理者无法敷衍塞责,万一有人敷 衍塞责也会受到这一机制的制约。

再者,由于制衡的核心是权利平衡,而企业管理的权力又是企业运营的动力与起点,因此 权利平衡就可以使企业运转保持平衡。

另外,从本质上来说,权力平衡就是权力平等,因此,这一制度本身蕴含平等的观念 等观念一旦成为企业管理理念,必将促成企业内部和谐与稳定。

由此可见,如果权利的制衡与监督这一管理原则付诸实践, 就可以使企业运营避免失误, 确保其管理制度的有效性,日常运营平衡了以及内部的和谐与稳定,这样的企业一定能成功。

参考答

论证存在的主要错漏:

1. 归因不全。影响企业成功的因素众多,单凭权力制衡和监督是远远不够的。

2. 缺乏必然联系。制衡是使被分解的权力相互制约以达到平衡,并不必然带来“使任何人 不能滥用权力”的结果;即使企业运营的所有环节都在可控范围之内,也并不必然能确保企业经营就不出现失误;即使平等观念成为企业管理理念,也不必然促成企业内部和 谐与稳定。

3. 论据不确凿(或夸大了监督的作用。监督不可能使企业运营的各个环节都处于可控制 的范围之内,如,与企业运营有关的外部环境及突发状况等。

4. 违反同一律(或概念内涵不一致)。“监督”先被解释为“指对企业管理进行严密观察使企业运营的各个环节处于可控范围之内,后被阐释为“环环相扣的”监督机制

5. “环环相扣的监督机制能确保企业内部各级管理者无法敷衍塞责,万一有人敷衍塞责也 会受到这一机制的制约”依据不足。

6. 混淆概念。混淆了“权利”与“权力”,“平衡”与“平等


57.论说文: 生物学家发现雌孔雀往往选择尾巴大而艳丽的雄孔雀作为配因为雄孔雀的尾巴越丽表明它越有生命活力,后代的健康越能得到保证。但是这种选择也产生了问题,孔雀尾巴 越艳丽越容易被天敌发现和猎获,生存反而受到威胁。

参考答案

1. 从选择主体(雌孔雀)角度看:

 (1) 任何选择或择决都存在权衡利弊的问题,怎样权衡或以什么为标准(目的)进行权 衡将成为论述的重点;

(2) 对利弊权衡得当与否能产生不同的结果或效果,哪种是较佳的; 2. 从选择客体(雄孔雀)角度看:

(1) 任何事物都具有两面性,因此怎样全面、客观看待事物就可以成为论述中心;

 

(2) 事物所具有的两面性带给人们态度、心理、作为等方面的不同影响

 

 

 

 

2014年管理类联考英语真题及解析

同研英语名师马红解析

复旦大学英语名师、联考英语辅导专家

 

Selection Ⅰ    Use of English

Direction:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,Cor D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10points)

     Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have__1__ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compaerd to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually__2__. For example,heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women.__3___,among the elderly,being somewhat overweight is often an __4__ of good health.

    Of even greater __5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined _6__ body mass index,or BMI .BMI __7__ body mass divided by the square of height.An adult with BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight.And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity,__8__, can be divided into moderately obese,severely obese ,and very severely obese.

    While such numerical standards seem __9__,they are not .Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat.Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit,___10__ others with a low BMI may be in poor __11__.For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12__ as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a __13__ BMI.

    Today we have a(n) __14__ to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes __15__ in the media with their faces covered . Stereotypes _16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17__ very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

     Negative attitudes toward obesity,__18___ in health concerns,have stimulated a number of anti-obesity __19___.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facileties.,Many emplovers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives.Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign _20___ childhood obesity.even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.

1. [A] denied          [B] concluded       [C] doubled        [D] ensured

2. [A] protective      [B] dangerous       [C] sufficient     [D] troublesome

3. [A] Instead         [B] However         [C] Likewise       [D] Therefore

4. [A] indicator       [B] objective       [C] origin         [D] example

5. [A] impact          [B] relevance       [C] assistance     [D] concern

6. [A] in term of      [B] in case of      [C] in favor of    [D] in respects of

7. [A] measures        [B]determines       [C] equals         [D] modifies  

8. [A] inessence       [B]in contrast      [C] in turn        [D] in part  

9. [A] complicated     [B] conservative    [C] variable       [D] straightforward

10. [A] so             [B] while           [C] since          [D] unless

11. [A] shape          [B]spirit           [C] balance        [D] taste

12. [A] start          [B]qualify          [C] stay           [D] retire  

13. [A] strange        [B]constant         [C] normal         [D] changeable  

14. [A] option         [B] reason          [C] opportunity    [D] tendency

15. [A] employed       [B]pictured         [C] imitated       [D] monitored

16. [A] compared       [B]combined         [C] settled        [D] associated

17. [A] Even           [B]Still            [C]  Yet           [D] Only

18. [A] despised       [B]ignored          [C] corrected      [D] grounded

19. [A] discussions    [B]businesses       [C] policies       [D] studies  

20. [A]  for           [B] against         [C] without        [D] with    

                        

Section   ⅡReading  Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

                                             Text 1

     What would you do with 5590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mae Kenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in the could do worse than read Hoppy Money by Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton.

     These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive . Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time –as stories –particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.

      This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason McDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib-a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.

      Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment ,not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good world, and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people around .Not everyone will agree with the authors policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers, But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.

21.According to Dunnand Norton,While of the following is the most rewarding purchase?

[A] A rich meal    

[B] A special tour  

[C]a stylish car    

[D]A big house

选 B.  细节题,答案定位在第四句:It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema.  答案在 AB 里面选,unique meal  不等于 rich meal,排除.


22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’watching TV

[A]critical    

[B] supportive  

[C]sympathetie    

[D]ambiguous

选 A.  细节态度题。文章作者对于美国人看电视的态度, 排除 CD,  作者的态度是负向的,选 A

定位在(something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it)      hardly jollier  负向,选 A


23.McRib is mentioned in Paragraph 3 to show that  

[A]popularity usually comes after quality

[B]consumers are sometimes irrational

[C]marketing tricks are often effective

[D] rarity generally increases pleasure

选 D.  细节题,这个题目需要看懂例子里的 restrict the availiabity    限制 availability  获得,就是限量供应,显得让人买到的时候觉得幸福,快乐,答案排除对象 A,quality  无 B,consumer irrational 无中生有  C,marketing tricks  *大干扰项 D .正确 rarity  **  

McDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib-a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.


24.According to the last paragraph.Happy Money

[A] has left much room for readers’creticism

[B] may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

[C]has predicated a wider income gap in theUS

[D]may give its readers a sense of achivement

选 B.  细节题,题目没看清就容易做错,Happy Money 是一本书,排除 CD  ,根据*后一句话转账之前说有人不同意可以排除 A,选B.

定位在*后一段的.Not everyone will agree with the authors policy ideas, which range from

mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers, but 之后,most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.


25.This text mainly discusses how to  

[A]balance feeling good and spending monye

[B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries

[C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent

[D] become more reasonable in spending on luxuries

选 C.  关键词在 spending money 和 feeling happy    两者如何平衡文章中没提及。

线索一:第二段 Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, 1    say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema.    1 These purchases often become more valuable with time –as stories –particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.  购物带来的满足感很快消失,原先让人怦然心动的帽子成了旧帽子, 诸如意义非凡的旅行,与众不同的大餐,甚至看场电影等会随着时间推移,变得越发有价值。

线索二:第三段 This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery

winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” 这是介绍一本书,  帮助挣钱的和得巨奖学习如何花钱,  物有所值,有*大的幸福感.    (Line 1 para 3  )

      但 [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries  是干扰项,获得巨奖是这篇文章中开头举出的一个例子,但本文不只针对那些获得大奖的人,也有挣工资养家的,教会他们如何花钱得到幸福。


Text 2

     An article in Scientific American has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing(to use the psychological terminology)strategies to achieve this. Social psychologists have amassed oceans of research into what they call the  “above average effect”, or  “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70%of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93%in driving(across the ages and genders)and 85% at getting on well with

others-all obviously statistical impossibilities.

     We rose-tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem. We strut around thinking we’re hot stuff.

     Psychologist and behavioural scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key study into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather than have people simply rate their beauty compared with others, he asked them to identify an original photograph of themselves from a lineup including versions that had been  morphed to appear more and less attractive. Visual recpgnition, reads the study, is  ”an automatic psychological process, occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image-which most did – they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that those who self-enhanced the most (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored pictures were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact, those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other markers for having higher self-esteem.  “I don’t think the findings that we have are any evidence of personal delusion,” says Epley.  “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves.” If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Eplet’s study, it makes sense that many people hate photographs of themselves so viscerally  – on one level, they don’t even recognize the person in the picture as themselves. Facebook, therefore, is a self-enhancer’s paradise, where people can share only the flukiest of flattering photos, the cream of their wit style Beauty , intellect and lifestyls .It’s  not that people’s profiles are dishonest, says Catalina Toma of Wisconsin-Madison University,  “but they portray an idealized version of themselves”.(People are much more likely to out-and-out lie on dating websites, to an audience of stangers.)


26.According to the first paragraph, social psychologists have found that

[A]our self-ratings are unrealistically high  

[B]illusory superiority is a baseless effect

[C]self-enhancing strategies are ineffective

[D]our need for leadership is unnatural

选 A.    细节题,容易


27.Visual recognition is believed to be peoples

[A] rapid matching                          

[B] automatic self-defense

[C] intuitive response              

[D]conscious choice

选 C.  细节题,容易

定位在原文第三句:Visual recognition, reads the study, is  ”an automatic psychological process, occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation Little couscious  排除 D.  定位信息没有提到 self-defense  无众生有排除 B

定位信息没有提到 self-defense Matching  排除 A.


28.Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to

[A]underestimate their insecurities

[B] believe in their attractiveness

[C] cover up their depressions

[D] oversimplify their illusions

选 B.  容易的细节题,

定位信息在第三句:In fact, those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other markers for having higher self-esteem 句子读不懂看对象,找到定位信息*重要在,第三句: attractiveness  与 self-esteem.选B.

用排除法也可以做对 ACD  三个的对象都无中生有。Insecurity


29.The world viscerally(Line2,Paragraph 5)is closest in meaning to

[A] instinctively

[B] occasionally

[C] particularly  

[D] aggressively

选  A.  词汇题,难  随缘。


30.It can be inferred Face book is a self-enhancers paradise because people can

[A]present their dishonest profiles

[B] define their traditional lifestyles

[C] share their intellectual pursuits

[D] withholds their unflattering sides

选 D.  细节推论题 ,难,

排除 A .dishonest profiles 与原文相反

排除 B.traditional life styles  无中生有

排除 C.intellecutal pursuits 无中生有


                                              Text 3

       The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and fragile recoveries. And yet, it would be a mistake to think we are right now simply experiencing the painful side of a boom and bust cycle. Certain jobs have gone away for eating up human jobs, this phenomenon will continue to restructure our economy in ways we can’t immediately foresee.

      When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened. This argument has attracted a lot of attention, via the success of the book Race Against the Machine, by Erik    Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, who both hail from MITs Center for Digital Business. Center for Digital Business.

      This is a powerful argument, and a scary one. And yet, John Hagel, auther of The power of pull and other books, says Brynjolfsson and McAfee miss the reason why these jobs are so vulnerable to technology in the first place.

      Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be  “tightly scripted” and  “highly standardized” ones that leave no room for “individual initiative or creativity.” In short, these are the types of jobs that machines can perform much better at than human beings. That is how we have put a giant target sign on the backs of American workers, Hagel says.

      It’s time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted, since we are still relying on a very 20thcentury notion of work, Hagel says. In our rapidly changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace who can take initiative and exercise their imagination  “to respond to unexpected events.” That’s not something machines are good at. They are designed to perform very predictable activities.

      As Hagel notes, Brynjolfsson and McAfee indeed touched on this point in their book. We need to reframe race against the machine as race with the machine. In our works, we need to look at the ways in which machines can augment human labor rather than replace it. So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather, “how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?”

31. According to the first paragraph, economic downturns would              .

[A] ease the competition of man vs. machine

[B] highlight machines’ threat to human jobs

[C] provoke a painful technological revolution

[D] outmode our current economic structure

选 B .  细节题,定位在第一句话 The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial

revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and fragile recoveries.           

对象是 man vs human    答案一定要讲到 machine  与 human jobs    排除 C D.

AB  正好相反, 选 B .

文章说现象在经济衰退和脆弱复苏是更加急剧。 选 B


32. The authors of Race Against the Machine argue that                .

[A] technology is diminishing man’s job opportunities

[B] automation is accelerating technological development

[C] certain jobs will remain intact after automation

[D] man will finally win the race against machine

选 A.  细节题, 容易,

答案定位在第一句:When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened.

段落话题是工作与自动化,机器的关系 排除 B D.

A C 方向相反,一定选工作不利的选项选 A.

33. Hagel argues that jobs in the U.S. are often                  .

[A] performed by innovative minds

[B] scripted with an individual style

[C] standardized without a clear target

[D] designed against human creativity

选 D.  细节题,如果不仔细定位,容易出错,定位在第一句话:

对象是 creativity  ,而且与之相悖。

*大干扰项选 C.  错在定位信息没有 clear target 这个对象,

Target 出现在第三句话中,也可以通过非定位信息排除法排除

Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be  “tightly scripted” and  “highly standardized” ones that leave no room for “individual initiative or creativity.”


34. According to the last paragraph, Brynjolfsson and McAfee discussed            .

[A] the predictability of machine behavior in practice

[B] the formula for how work is conducted efficiently

[C] the ways machines replace human labor in modern times

[D]the necessity of human involvement in the workplace  

选 D.  细节题,用排除法才能做对。 不过正确选项和原文同义改写的不是很好。

定位在*后一句话:So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather,  “how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?”,

作者否定了 technology  排除 A ,B

而 C 是 rather than  后面的内容。

选 D


35. Which of the following could be the most appropriate title for text?

[A]How to Innovate Our Work Practices  

[B]Machines will Replace Human Labor

[C]Can We Win the Race Against Machines

[D]Economic Downturns Stimulate Innovations

选 C .  主旨题,排除法做对,否则很容易做错。

文章主题 machine    排除 A D .

剩下 B C, 排除 B machine 会代替人非文章观点。


                                            Text 4

     When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.

     Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to jostle for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure projects, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged. This government does not want to see a return to large-scale provision of council housing, so it is naturally wary of measures that will lead us down that route.

     Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes. The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.

     There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. The cap, introduced in 2012 as part of the Housing Revenue Account reform, has been a major issue for the sector. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%. Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new develop pments from revenues.

     Finally, they should look at the way in which public sector land is released. Currently up-front payments are required, putting a financial burden on the housing provider. A more positive stimulus would be to encourage a system where the land is made available and maintained as a long-term equity stake in the project.

      But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015, is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if it returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to the era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate,This means that affordable housing specialists like Wates living Space have to create a whole new way of working in partnership with registered providers.We have to be prepared to take on more of the risk during the development phase,driving down the cost to deliver high-quality affordable housing and,most importantly,developing alternative funding models to help achieve this.

      While the govement’s commitment to long-term funding may have changed,the very pressing need for more affordable housing is real and is not going away.The comprehensive spending review provides the opportunity to start moving us in the right direction stimulating investment in new supply and quickly delivering tangible benefits to local economics.It also helps create the space to develop a long-term sustainable strategy for.

36.The author believes that the housing seetor________.

[A] has attracted much attention

[B] has lost its real value in economy

[C] shoulders too much responsibility

[D]involves certain political factors

选 D .  第二段转折词,But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged 这里用*主要了理由提示房屋建设有政治因素.B项有明显的干扰,但错误出在 lost its real value  上,文章只提到被忽略,但没提到价值丧失。


37.It can be learned that affordable housing has __________

[A]suffered government biases

[B]increased its home supply

[C]offered spending opportunities

[D]disappionted the government

选 A.  细节题 较难,定位在第四段。

It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.

答案一定要有对象 prejudice    偏见 ,只有 A 有偏见


38.According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may ________

[A] prepare to reduce housing stock debt

[B]release a lifted GDP growth forecast

[C]allow greater goverment debt for housing

[D]stop local authorities from building homes

选 C.    细节题,定位在第五段  

只有 A,C 对象正确。

第二句:The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt.

这句话里的对象是债务 , cap 是限额,更灵活的限额,说明,债务可以更多了,这样可以举债

建更多房子    


39.It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_____

[A]lower the costs of registered providers

[B]relieve the minister of responsibilities

[C]contribute to funding new developments

[D]lesson the impact of government interference

选 C.  定位在倒数第三段,Ministers should also look at  creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new develop apartments from revenues.    

Certainty in rental environment  对应题目中 stable rental environment,  稳定的出租会对那些提供出租房的那方带来很大影响,他们会拿租金开放新的公寓房(fund new develop apartments from revenues)。这对应选项Ccontribute to funding new developments(有助于获得开发新项目)


40.The author believes that after 2015,the goverment may______

[A]implement more polices to support housing

[B]stop generous funding to the housing sector

[C]renew the affordable housing grants programme

[D]review the need for large-scale public grants

选 B.  定位在倒数第二段第二行 we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015, is unlikely to be extended beyond then.

到 2015 年,政府对新廉租房的大手笔投入不可能继续下去。The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to the era of large-scale public grants.  重复刚提到的观点,不可能重新回到过去政府大笔投入资金时代, large scale public grants  在正确项换成 generous funding

                                         

  Part B

Directions:

      Read the following text and answer questions by finding information from the right column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the left column .There are two extra chioces in the left column.Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET1 (10points)

     Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies,Land Art was one of a range of new forms,including Body Art,Performance Art,Action Art and installation Art,which pushed art beyondthe traditonal confines of the studio and gallery.Rather than portraying landscape,land artists used the physical substance of a land itself as their medium.

     The British land artist,typified by Richard Long’s piece,was not only more domestically scaled,but a lot quirkier than its American counterpart,Indeed,while you might assume that an exhibition of Land Art would consist only of records of works rather than the works themselves,Long’s photograph of his work is the work.Since his  “action”is in th past the photograph is its sole embodiment.

    That might seem rather an obscure point .but it sets the tone for an exhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relatively few natural objects.

    Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the from. The Boyle Family, on the other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists Mark Boyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of the British landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterizes most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.

    Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard’s very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a prettygirl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.

    Generally however British land artists preferred to get away from towns, gravitating toward landscapes that are traditionally considered beautiful such as the Lake District or the Wiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn’t apparent at the time, much of this work is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Words worsh would have readily understood. Derek jarman’s yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.

    In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can’t help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this well selected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn’t about imposing on the landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art created passing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results were as gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable.

41.  选 D .  定位在第三段第一句:Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the from.

对象英国,elegance


42. 选 E  这题*难,定位在 Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterizes most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.

粗体部分说明画描述的是*普通的 Most of the time  艺术 ,land art  中* ordinary  的一面


43.选 G.定位在粗体字部分 Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard’s very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a prettygirl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.


44.选 C.定位在 Derek jarman’s yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.


45.选 A.  定位在 A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath.

答案一定要讲到 walk.

                                  [A]originates from a long walk that the artist took.

   41. stone circle              [B] illustrates   a   kind of    landscape-orientated

                                  light conceptual art.

42. Olaf Street Study     [C] reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition.

43. Across the Park          [D] represents  the  elegance of    the British land  art .

   44. Towards    Avebury        [E] Depicts the ordinary side of the British land art .

   45. Seven Days                [F] embodies a romantic escape  into the Scottish outdoors.

  [G] Contains images form different parts of the same photograph.

 


                                    Section III Translation

     Most people would define optimism as being endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half full. But that’s exactly the kind of false cheerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimism means being in touch with reality,” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor. According to Ben-Shahar, realistic optimists are those who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.

     Ben-Shahar uses three optimistic exercises. When he feels down  – say, after giving a bad lecture  – he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that not every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction. He analyzes the weak lecture, learning lessons for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the grand scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.

参考答案:

      大多数人会将乐观定义为无尽的欢乐,就像一只总是装着半杯水的杯子。但那是一种绝不会为积极的心理学家所提倡的虚假的快乐。哈佛大学的 Tal Ben-Shahar 教授说,“健康的乐观主义意味着要处于现实之中。”在 Ben-Shahar 看来,现实的乐观主义者会享受既定事实,而非事事求全。

       Ben-Shahar 会使用三种乐观的方法。比如说,当他进行了一次糟糕的演讲感到情绪低落的时候,他会告诉自己这是很正常的事。他会提醒自己:并不是每一次演讲都可以获得诺贝尔获,总会有一些人的演讲效果不及其他人,下次进行改进即可。他分析了些效果不好的演讲并且从得失中吸取教训为将来做准备。*后,现在存在这样一个态度,即在人生的宏伟计划中,一次演讲真没有那么重要的。

                             

Section IV Writing

Part A:

47. Directions:

Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him an email to  

1) tell him about your living habits, and  

2) ask for advice about living there.


Dear John,  

I am very pleased to be informed by the school administrater that I will share an apartment with you. It feels so nice to live with a local student. I will develop my English fluency quickly with your help.

I come from China and like most young people in our country, I don’t smoke but I drink a little beer at times. I have the habit of going to bed quite early and get up early, because as the saying goes, “Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise”.  

I have little idea about your city. So would you please give me some advice on what I need to take for living there?

I am looking forward to your response with anticipations.

Best wishes, Li Ming


Part B.  

48.Directions:

Write an essay based on the following chart.In your essay, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)

Urbanization in China

China was a country of farmers, but this situation has been changing steadily over the past 20 years.

In 1990, the proportion of farmers to city residents was 830 million to 300 million. But 10 years later, the proportion changed to be 800 million to 450 million. In 2010, the number of farmers was only about 10 million larger than that of city residents. How should we interpret this urbanization?  

This change has interesting implications. For one thing, as economy develops, the central

government has been attaching greater importance to farmers’ interest. The ongoing urbanization brings more people to towns and cities. Such people are thus entitled to higher quality of life that theyhave never dreamed of. For another, the high mobility of people makes our society more dynamic, and also creates greater demands for infrastructure in cities like school and hospitals.

   Meanwhile, we shouldn’t turn a blind eye to the challenges that this urbanization brings about. For example, social security is becoming a compelling problem. So the government should take our social tradition, people’s literacy level and welfare system into account in promoting the process. Only then can urbanization truly benefit more people in our country. (198 words)  

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